Document Detail

Risk factors for different phenotypes of hypospadias: results from a Dutch case-control study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23305310     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To identify specific risk factors for different phenotypes of hypospadias that may arise as a result of dissimilar embryonic processes in different time windows.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 405 hypospadias cases and 627 male controls were included in a Dutch case-control study. Medical records of cases were reviewed to determine the anatomical location of the urethral opening, while demographic, lifestyle and pregnancy-related risk factor data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to calculate effect estimates for the group containing all cases of hypospadias and for the different hypospadias phenotypes.
RESULTS: Cases were subdivided into anterior (glandular and coronal; 59%), middle (penile; 29%) and posterior (penoscrotal, scrotal and perineal; 12%) hypospadias. Being a twin/triplet, primiparity, preterm delivery, and being small for gestational age were associated with hypospadias, particularly in posterior cases. Family history of hypospadias increased the risk of hypospadias, an effect that seemed to be more predominant in anterior and middle forms. Maternal obesity seemed to increase the risk of hypospadias in general, and hormone-containing contraceptive use during pregnancy especially increased the risk of middle and posterior hypospadias.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides some indications for aetiological heterogeneity of hypospadias, separating anterior and middle phenotypes from posterior hypospadias. Future research should continue to try to establish which specific risk factors and mechanisms may differ according to hypospadias phenotype.
Iris A L M van Rooij; Loes F M van der Zanden; Marijn M Brouwers; Nine V A M Knoers; Wout F J Feitz; Nel Roeleveld
Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2013-01-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  BJU international     Volume:  112     ISSN:  1464-410X     ISO Abbreviation:  BJU Int.     Publication Date:  2013 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-13     Completed Date:  2013-08-15     Revised Date:  2014-02-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100886721     Medline TA:  BJU Int     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  121-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 BJU International.
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MeSH Terms
Child, Preschool
Hypospadias / epidemiology*,  etiology,  genetics
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Exposure / adverse effects*
Netherlands / epidemiology
Paternal Exposure / adverse effects*
Penis / abnormalities*
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / epidemiology*
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment*
Risk Factors
Comment In:
J Urol. 2014 Feb;191(2):465   [PMID:  24411901 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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