Document Detail

Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19663709     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis can cause severe ocular and neurological disease. We sought to determine risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of adults recently infected with T. gondii. Case patients were selected from the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory from August 2002 through May 2007; control patients were randomly selected from among T. gondii-seronegative persons. Data were obtained from serological testing and patient questionnaires. RESULTS: We evaluated 148 case patients with recent T. gondii infection and 413 control patients. In multivariate analysis, an elevated risk of recent T. gondii infection was associated with the following factors: eating raw ground beef (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.67; 95% confidence limits [CLs], 2.09, 21.24; attributable risk [AR], 7%); eating rare lamb (aOR, 8.39; 95% CLs, 3.68, 19.16; AR, 20%); eating locally produced cured, dried, or smoked meat (aOR, 1.97; 95% CLs, 1.18, 3.28; AR, 22%); working with meat (aOR, 3.15; 95% CLs, 1.09, 9.10; AR, 5%); drinking unpasteurized goat's milk (aOR, 5.09; 95% CLs, 1.45, 17.80; AR, 4%); and having 3 or more kittens (aOR, 27.89; 95% CLs, 5.72, 135.86; AR, 10%). Eating raw oysters, clams, or mussels (aOR, 2.22; 95% CLs, 1.07, 4.61; AR, 16%) was significant in a separate model among persons asked this question. Subgroup results are also provided for women and for pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, exposure to certain raw or undercooked foods and exposure to kittens are risk factors for T. gondii infection. Knowledge of these risk factors will help to target prevention efforts.
Jeffrey L Jones; Valerie Dargelas; Jacquelin Roberts; Cindy Press; Jack S Remington; Jose G Montoya
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America     Volume:  49     ISSN:  1537-6591     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin. Infect. Dis.     Publication Date:  2009 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-08-21     Completed Date:  2009-11-05     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9203213     Medline TA:  Clin Infect Dis     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  878-84     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vectorborne, and Enteric Diseases, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Antibodies, Protozoan / blood
Case-Control Studies
Cat Diseases / diagnosis,  epidemiology,  parasitology,  transmission
Cost of Illness
Food Parasitology*
Meat / parasitology
Middle Aged
Milk / parasitology
Multivariate Analysis
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic / diagnosis,  epidemiology,  etiology
Risk Factors
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sex Factors
Shellfish / parasitology
Toxoplasma / immunology
Toxoplasmosis / diagnosis,  epidemiology*,  etiology*,  transmission
Toxoplasmosis, Animal / diagnosis,  epidemiology,  transmission
Toxoplasmosis, Congenital / diagnosis,  epidemiology,  etiology
United States / epidemiology
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antibodies, Protozoan

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