Document Detail

Risk factors for COPD spirometrically defined from the lower limit of normal in the BOLD project.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22183479     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become the third most common cause of death and disability worldwide by 2020. The prevalence of COPD defined by the lower limit of normal was estimated using high-quality spirometry in surveys of 14 populations aged ≥ 40 yrs. The strength and consistency of associations were assessed using random effects meta-analysis. Pack-years of smoking were associated with risk of COPD at each site. After adjusting for this effect, we still observed significant associations of COPD risk with age (OR 1.52 for a 10 yr age difference, 95% CI 1.35-1.71), body mass index in obese compared with normal weight (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.37-0.67), level of education completed (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.87), hospitalisation with a respiratory problem before age 10 yrs (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.42-3.91), passive cigarette smoke exposure (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47), tuberculosis (OR 1.78, 95%CI 1.17-2.72) and a family history of COPD (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.19-1.90). Although smoking is the most important risk factor for COPD, other risk factors are also important. More research is required to elucidate relevant risk factors in low- and middle-income countries where the greatest impact of COPD will occur.
Richard Hooper; Peter Burney; William M Vollmer; Mary Ann McBurnie; Thorarinn Gislason; Wan C Tan; Anamika Jithoo; Ali Kocabas; Tobias Welte; A Sonia Buist
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-12-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  The European respiratory journal     Volume:  39     ISSN:  1399-3003     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur. Respir. J.     Publication Date:  2012 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-06-01     Completed Date:  2012-10-16     Revised Date:  2013-06-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8803460     Medline TA:  Eur Respir J     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1343-53     Citation Subset:  IM    
National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Emmanuel Kaye Building, 1 Manresa Road, London SW3 6LR, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Body Mass Index
Educational Status
Middle Aged
Multicenter Studies as Topic / statistics & numerical data
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / diagnosis,  epidemiology*,  etiology
Risk Factors
Smoking / adverse effects,  epidemiology
Spirometry / methods
Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects,  statistics & numerical data
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications,  epidemiology
Grant Support
085790//Wellcome Trust
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Tobacco Smoke Pollution

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