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Review of dicrotendipes kieffer from china (Diptera, chironomidae).
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PMID:  22573947     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The genus Dicrotendipes Kieffer from China, including 8 species, is reviewed. Two new species, Dicrotendipes nudussp. n. and Dicrotendipes saetanumerosussp. n. are described and the male imagines are illustrated; the record of Dicrotendipes fusconotatus (Kieffer) is the first for China. A key to the males of Dicrotendipes in China is given.
Authors:
Xin Qi; Xiao-Long Lin; Xin-Hua Wang
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Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2012-04-19
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Title:  ZooKeys     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1313-2970     ISO Abbreviation:  Zookeys     Publication Date:  2012  
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Created Date:  2012-05-10     Completed Date:  2012-08-23     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
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Languages:  eng     Pagination:  23-36     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000, China.
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urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:6150473B-3A02-4926-BFD1-201002F7A198Xin Qi, Xiao-Long Lin, Xin-Hua Wang
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DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.183.2834

Review of Dicrotendipes Kieffer from China (Diptera, Chironomidae)
Xin Qi1 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:C902B210-CE50-4C13-885B-CE172F2F633B
Xiao-Long Lin2 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:AC3964DC-0709-4DCB-96AA-6EBEDFA04C07
Xin-Hua Wang2 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:37612E15-93C0-4263-80F7-5322036240F9
1College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000, China
2College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
Correspondence: Corresponding author: Xin-Hua Wang (xhwang@nankai.edu.cn)
[edited-by] Academic editor: V. Blagoderov

Introduction

The genus [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes] was erected by Kieffer in 1913, with [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes septemmaculatus] (Becker, 1908) as type species. Adults of [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes] have been considered as pests due to large emergences (Frommer and Rauch 1971; Epler 1988), and have been implicated in allergic reactions in humans in Africa (Cranston et al. 1983). The immature stages are found in both lentic and lotic habitats, but are generally more prevalent in lentic situation. So far, there are 102 species recorded around the word.

In this paper, the Chinese material of [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes] is reviewed. Two new species are described, and a key to the Chinese species of [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes] is presented.


Materials and methods

The morphological nomenclature follows Saether (1980). The material examined was mounted on slides, following the procedure outlined by Saether (1969). Measurements are given as ranges followed by the mean, when three or more specimens are measured, followed by the number of specimens measured (n) in parentheses. Specimens are deposited in the College of Life Science, Nankai University, China and College of Life Science, Taizhou University, China.

Abbreviations of parts measured are as follows:

TL Total length, Length of abdomen + length of thorax; Abdomen is measured from the concave anteriomedian margin of segment I to the apex of the gonostylus; the thorax is measured from the posterior margin of the postnotum to the anterior apex of the scutum in lateral view.

WL Wing length,measured from arculus to apex of wing.

Pfe Length of profemur.

AR Antennal ration,length of 11th / length of flagellomeres 1–10.

L: 5th/3 rdLength of the 5th Palpomere / length of the 3 rd Palpomere.

Ftu Length of frontal tubercle.

VR Venarum ration, length of Cubitus (Cu) / length of Media (M).

BV Length of (femur + tibia + ta1) / length of (ta2 + ta3 + ta4 + ta5)

LR Leg ration, length of ta1 / length of tibia.

SV Length of (femur + tibia) / length of ta1.

HR Hypopygium ration,length of gonocoxite / length of gonostylus.

HV Hypopygium value, total length / length of gonostylus times ten.

P1Fore leg.

P2 Mid leg.

P3 Hind leg.

fe femur.

ti tibia.

ta1…tantarsus1…tarsusn.

B Brachiolum.

R Radius.

R1 Radius 1 vein.

R4+5 Radius 4+5 vein.


Taxonomy
[taxon-name[genus: Dicrotendipes][species: flexus]]

[taxon-authority: (Johannsen, 1932)]

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dicrotendipes_flexus

Specimens examined.

China, Hubei: 5♂♂, Wuhan City, Donghu Lake, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 30°35.06’N, 114°22.42’E], 22.iv.1977, Wang SD sweeping method; Guangdong: 2♂♂, Fengkai County, Heishiding Nature Conservation Area, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 23°29.14’N, 111°50.54’E], 18.iv.1988, Wang XH, light trap; Shandong: 1 ♂, Yantai City, Kunyu Mountain, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 37°23.53’N, 121°36.42’E], 24.viii.1987, Wang XH, sweeping method.

Remarks.

[taxon-name: Dicrotendipes flexus] (Johannsen) closely resembles [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nervosus] (Staeger) in the structure of hypopygium, but can be separated by the apparently disjunct distributions and fewer setae on R and R1, (21−26 in [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes flexus], more than 35 in [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nervosus]). All examined Chinese specimens comply with the description of Johannsen (1932) and Hashimoto et al. (1981).

Distribution.

China (Hubei, Guangdong and Shandong Province); Australia; Japan; Indonesia.

[taxon-name[genus: Dicrotendipes][species: fusconotatus]]

[taxon-authority: (Kieffer, 1922)]

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dicrotendipes_fusconotatus

  • [taxon-name: Calochironomus fusconotatus][comment: Kieffer, 1922: 68.]
  • [taxon-name: Calochironomus grisseonotatus][comment: Kieffer, 1922: 69.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes forkficula][comment: Kieffer, 1925: 298.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nilicola][comment: Kieffer, 1925: 300.]
  • [taxon-name: Chironomus (Dicrotendipes) fusconotatus][comment: : Freeman 1957: 362.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes fusconotatus][comment: : Contreras-Lichtenberg 1986: 717.]
Specimens examined.

China, Jiangxi: 5♂♂, Yongxiu County, Nanji Town, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 28°56.42’N, 116°21.37’E], 12.vi.2004, Yan CC, light trap.

Remarks.

Chinese specimens mainly agree with the description of Freeman (1957), but vary in the coloration of the abdomen: the abdomen of the Chinese species is black; while in Freeman (1957), the abdomen is light green and the median of each abdominal tergite black.

Distribution.

China (Jiangxi Province); Belgium; Congo; Egypt; Israel; Kenya; Sudan; Zaire.

[taxon-name[genus: Dicrotendipes][species: nervosus]]

[taxon-authority: (Staeger, 1839)]

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dicrotendipes_nervosus

Specimens examined.

China, Jiangxi: 7♂♂, Yongxiu County, Nanji Town, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 28°56.42’N, 116°21.37’E], 12.vi.2004, Yan CC, light trap; Ningxia: 3♂♂, Yinchuan City, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 38°29.23’N, 106°13.19’E], Wang XH, light trap; Shandong: 2♂♂, Zaozhuang City, Baodugu Mountain, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 34°59.11’N, 117°43.07’E], 28.v.1994, Wei MC, sweeping method; Tianjin: 6♂♂, Yuqiao Reservoir, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 40°02.35’N, 117°27.01’E], 17.x.1987, Wang XH, light trap; Zhejiang: 1♂, Quzhou City, Yunxi village, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 29°01.15’N, 118°56.51’E], 20.iv.2011, Lin XL, sweeping method.

Distribution.

China (Jiangxi, Shandong, Zhejiang Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Tianjin City); Brazil; Britain; Canada; Denmark; Germany; Japan; Netherlands; Korea; Sweden; Russia; USA.

[taxon-name: [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: nudus]][taxon-status: sp. n.]

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C0444659-611D-4DAB-BDD3-1AD246E9978F

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dicrotendipes_nudus

Figs 1−5

Diagnosis.

R1 and R4+5 without seta; tergite IX without median seta; anal point with basal peduncle and bulbous ventral extension, 6−9 dorsal basal setae and 6 lateral setae.

Description.

Male imago (n = 18)

TL 2.65−3.20, 2.95 mm. WL 1.65−2.00, 1.82 mm. TL/WL 1.58−1.94, 1.72. WL/Pfe 2.14−2.43, 2.31.

Coloration.Head, thorax and abdominal tergite VI−IX brown, abdominal tergite I−V pale yellow; legs yellowish-brown.

Head. AR 1.85−2.12, 2.02. Temporal setae 10−16, 13. Clypeus with 12−19, 16 setae. Tentorium 100−163, 146 µm long, 20−35, 28 µm wide. Palpomere lengths (in µm): 34−42, 35; 43−55, 48; 40-45; 108−130, 121; 130−148, 138; 163−215, 179. L: 5th/3 rd 1.35−1.67, 1.58. Frontal tubercle 10.20−17.50, 14.20 µm long, 5.00−7.50, 6.20 µm wide.

Wing (Fig. 1).Wing transparent, without markings. VR 1.11−1.16, 1.13. B 1−3, 2 setae; R with 7−11, 9 setae; R1 and R4+5 without seta. Squama with 4−6, 5 setae.

Thorax.Dorsocentrals 8−11, 10; acrostichals 4−5, 4; prealars 3−4, 4. Scutellum with 4−9, 7 setae.

Legs. Fore tibia with rounded scale lacking spur. Spurs on mid tibiae 23–25, 24 µm and 18−25,20 µm long, including combs 26–32, 30 µm and 26–32, 30 µm long; spurs on hind tibia 22–32, 26 µm and 18−20,19 µm long including combs 24–28, 26 µm and 22–25, 23 µm long. Width at apex of front tibia 53−58, 55 µm, of mid tibia 50−55, 53 µm, of hind tibia 55−65, 59 µm. Lengths (in µm) and proportions of legs in Table 1.

Hypopygium(Figs 2−5). Anal point 40−60, 50 µm long, with basal peduncle and bulbous ventral extension, 6−9 dorsal basal setae and 6 lateral setae. Tergite IX without median setae; laterosternite IX with 3−4, 3 setae. Phallapodeme 95−103, 97 µm long; transverse sternapodeme 40−50, 45 µm long, laterally narrowed, medially broad, inverted U-shaped. Gonocoxite 142−165, 156 µm long. Superior volsella 83−92, 85 µm long, 23−27, 25 µm wide; digitiform with short ventral extension; with numerous micro setae and 3−4 short apical setae (Figs 4−5). Inferior volsella 128−155, 142 µm long; elongate, apex bulbiform, with 6−9, 8 apical setae in 2 rows. Gonostylus 150−195, 172 µm long; slightly curved medially, with 5−7, 6 apical setae along inner margin. HR 0.73−1.17, 0.82; HV 1.82−1.88, 1.85.

Type materials.

Holotype: 1♂, China, Hebei: Chicheng County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 40°54.16’N, 115°54.08’E], 21.vii.2001, Guo YH, light trap. Paratypes (17): Hebei: 2♂♂, Chicheng County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 40°54.16’N, 115°54.08’E], 21.vii.2001, Guo YH, light trap; Xinjiang: 5♂♂, Hebahe County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 48°04.30’N, 86°24.47’E], 15.vii.2002, Tang HQ, light trap; Zhejiang: 3♂♂, Ningbo City, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 29°48.36’N, 121°34.53’E], 10.v.2010, Qi X, sweeping method; 1♂, Sanmen County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 29°05.55’N, 121°23.45’E], 28.vii.2010, Lin XL, sweeping method; 6♂♂, Tiantai County, Huading Mountain, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 29°14.51’N, 121°06.31’E],13.iv.2011, Lin XL, light trap.

Etymology.

The species name is from Latin, nudus, meaning bare, referring to R1 and R4+5 without seta, which is unique within the genus.

Remarks.

[taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nudus] closely resembles [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nervosus], but can be separated by R1 and R4+5 of [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nudus] without seta; while in [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nervosus], R1 with 11−20, 15 setae, R4+5 with17−28, 22 setae.

Distribution.

The species is known from Hebei, Zhejiang Province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

[taxon-name[genus: Dicrotendipes][species: pelochloris]]

[taxon-authority: (Kieffer, 1912)]

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dicrotendipes_pelochloris

  • [taxon-name: Tendipes pelochloris][comment: Kieffer, 1912: 39; Kieffer 1916: 113.]
  • [taxon-name: Limnochironomus niveicauda][comment: Kieffer, 1921: 585.]
  • [taxon-name: Chironomus (Limnochironomus) niveicauda][comment: : Johannsen 1932: 528.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes niveicauda][comment: : Sublette and Sublette 1973: 404; Hashimoto et al. 1981: 13.]
  • [taxon-name: Chironomus inferior][comment: Johannsen, 1932: 534.]
  • [taxon-name: Cladotendipes inferior][comment: : Lenz 1937: 7.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes inferior][comment: : Sublette and Sublette 1973 1973: 403.]
  • [taxon-name: Chironomus (Dicrotendipes) wirthi][comment: Freeman, 1961: 692.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes pelochloris][comment: : Epler 1988: 134; Wanget al. 1990: 28; Wang 2000: 644.]
Specimens examined.

China, Hainan: 2♂♂, Xinglong County, Huaqiao Farm, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 18°43.27’N, 110°14.42’E], 21.v.1985, Wang XH, light trap; Hebei: 1♂, Qinhuangdao City, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 39°55.53’N, 119°36.19’E], 4.vi.1985, Li HH, sweeping method; 3♂♂, Chicheng County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 40°54.16’N, 115°54.08’E], 21.vii.2001, Guo YH, light trap; Jiangxi: 2♂♂, Yongxiu County, Nanji Town, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 28°56.42’N, 116°21.37’E], 12.vi.2004, Yan CC, light trap; Fujian: 11♂♂, Shanghang County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 25°02.32’N, 116°26.12’E], 6.v.1993, Wang XH, light trap; 2♂♂, Longyan City, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 25°07.14’N, 117°02.20’E], 25.ix.2002, Liu Z, light trap; Guangxi: 4♂, Leye County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 24°47.30’N, 106°33.47’E], 24.vii.2004, Yu X, light trap; Guizhou: 2♂♂, Guiyang City, Huaxi, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 26°24.32’N, 106°38.58’E], 23.vii.1995, Bu WJ, sweeping method; Taiwan: 2♂♂, Taibei City, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 25°08.33’N, 121°36.57’E], 21.vii.2003, Wang XH, light trap.

Remarks.

The Chinese specimens mainly agree with the description by Epler (1988). According to Epler (1988), there was some variation in the coloration of the wing in [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes pelochloris], from hyaline to dusky brown, or with diffuse brown cloud along R1, R4+5, M, Cu and An. The wings of Chinese specimens are hyaline, without markings. The Chinese specimens are smaller than the specimens described in Epler (1988). Some measured differences between the Chinese specimens and the specimens described by Epler (1988) are shown in Table 2.

Distribution.

China (Hainan, Hebei, Fujian, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Taiwan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region); Australia; India; Indonesia; Japan; Pakistan; Philippines; South Korea.

[taxon-name: [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: saetanumerosus]][taxon-status: sp. n.]

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:B8666895-7A48-41E0-8799-8B236E7FDDAD

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dicrotendipes_saetanumerosus

Figs 6−8

Diagnosis.

Tergite IX with more than 30 median setae; anal point broad, bare; superior volsella pediform, with 11−16 lateral setae.

Description.

Male imago (n = 7)

TL 3.65−4.30, 3.82 mm. WL 1.80−2.30, 2.10 mm. TL/WL 1.87−2.03, 1.93. WL/Pfe 1.86−2.04, 1.96.

Coloration.Head, thorax and abdominal tergite VII−IX brown, abdominal tergite I−VI pale yellow; legs yellowish-brown.

Head. AR 2.38−2.55, 2.40. Temporal setae 19−22, 20. Clypeus with 16−20, 17 setae. Tentorium 120−155, 136 µm long, 26−35, 30 µm wide. Palpomere lengths (in µm): 32−53, 45; 58−68, 62; 155−185, 167; 165−195, 172; 235−260, 241. L: 5th/3 rd 1.41−1.52, 1.46. Frontal tubercle 7.50−15.00, 10.00 µm long, 5.00−6.50, 5.52 µm wide.

Wing (Fig. 6).Wing transparent, without markings. VR 1.05−1.06, 1.05. B 2−3, 2 setae; R with17−20, 18 setae; R1 with 12−16, 14 setae; R4+5 with 17−19, 18. Squama with 4−9, 6 setae.

Thorax.Dorsocentrals 8−11, 10; acrostichals 9−16, 12; prealars 4−5, 4. Scutellum with 8−11, 9 setae.

Legs. Fore tibia with rounded scale lacking spur. Spurs on mid tibiae 23–28, 26 µm and 25−30, 26 µm long, including combs 20–23, 21 µm and 15–18, 16 µm long; spurs on hind tibia 23−28, 26 µm and 25−30, 27 µm long including combs 20–23, 21 µm and 15–18, 16 µm long. Width at apex of front tibia 58−68, 60 µm, of mid tibia 58−73, 63 µm, of hind tibia 63−85, 70 µm. Lengths (in µm) and proportions of legs in Table 3.

Hypopygium(Figs 7−8). Anal point 40−50, 45 µm long, broad, bare. Tergite IX with more than 30 median setae; laterosternite IX with 2−4, 3 setae. Phallapodeme 90−115, 97 µm long; transverse sternapodeme 40−50, 45 µm long, laterally narrowed, medially broad, inverted U-shaped. Gonocoxite 165−230, 180 µm long. Superior volsella 68−77, 70 µm long, 38−68, 50 µm wide; pediform, with 11−16 lateral setae. Inferior volsella 138−163, 142 µm long; elongate, apex bulbiform, with 9−12, 10 apical setae in 2 rows. Gonostylus 180−195, 186 µm long; slightly curved medially, with 5−7, 6 apical setae along inner margin. HR 0.80−0.90, 0.82; HV 1.83−2.05, 1.87.

Type materials.

Holotype: 1♂, China, Shandong: Taian City, Tai Moutain [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 36°11.37’N, 117°08.13’E], 25.v.1994, Wang XH, light trap. Paratypes (8): Shandong: 1♂, Taian City, Tai Moutain, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 36°11.37’N, 117°08.13’E], 25.v.1994, Wang XH, light trap; Hubei: 2♂♂, Shiyan City, Wudang Mountain, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 32°30.22’N, 111°05.09’E], 16.vii.1997, Wang BX, light trap; Zhejiang: 5♂♂, Kaihua County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 29°05.57’N, 118°23.19’E], 13.iv.2011, Lin XL, light trap.

Etymology.

The species name is from Latin, saeta, meaning setae, numerosus, meaning numerous, referring to the tergite IX of the species with more than 30 setae, which is unique within the genus.

Remarks.

[taxon-name: Dicrotendipes saetanumerosus] sp. n. closely resembles [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes tamaviridis] Sasa, 1981 in the structure of hypopygium, but the new species [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes saetanumerosus] can be separated from [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes tamaviridis] on the basis of following points: (1) the anal point of [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes saetanumerosus] sp. n. is broad and not expanded apically, but the anal point of [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes tamaviridis] is slender and expanded apically; and (2) the tergite IX in [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes saetanumerosus] sp. n. has more than 30 median setae, while [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes tamaviridis] has nomedian setae and 8−9 setae in the base of anal point.

Distribution.

The species is known from Hubei, Shandong and Zhejiang Province of China.

[taxon-name[genus: Dicrotendipes][species: septemmaculatus]]

[taxon-authority: (Becker, 1908)]

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dicrotendipes_septemmaculatus

  • [taxon-name: Chironomus septemmaculatus][comment: Becker, 1908: 77.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes pictipennis][comment: Kieffer, 1913: 23; Freeman 1955: 22.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes formosanus][comment: Kieffer, 1916: 115; Hashimoto 1981: 12.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes formosanus][comment: var frontalis Kieffer, 1916: 116.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes frontalis][comment: : Sublette and Sublette 1973: 403.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes speciosus][comment: Kieffer, 1924: 256; Kieffer 1925: 299.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes quatuordecimpunctatum][comment: (Goetghebuer, 1936): Contreras-Lichtenberg 1986: 710.]
  • [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes septemmaculatus][comment: : Epler 1988: 42; Wanget al. 1990: 28; Harrison 1993: 363; Spies and Saether 2004: 41.]
Specimens examined.

China, Hebei: 3♂♂, Qinhuangdao City, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 39°55.53’N, 119°36.19’E], 4.vi.1985, Li HH, sweeping method; Guizhou: 2♂♂, Guiyang City, Huaxi, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 26°24.32’N, 106°38.58’E], 23.vii.1995, Bu WJ, sweeping method; 1♂, Libo County, Maolan Town, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 25°17.21’N, 108°04.28’E], 28.vii.1995, Bu WJ, sweeping method; Shandong: 1♂, Taian City, Tai Moutain, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 36°11.37’N, 117°08.13’E], 25.v.1994, Wang XH, light trap; Taiwan: 3♂♂, Taibei City, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 25°08.33’N, 121°36.57’E], 21.vii.2003, Wang XH, light trap; Yunnan: 1♂, Wuding County, Shishan Moutain, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 25°31.58’N, 102°22.32’E], 8.vii.1986, Wang XH, sweeping method; 1♂, Eryuan County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 26°19.56’N, 100°02.03’E], 18.vii.1986, Wang XH, light trap; 2♂♂, Kunming City, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 25°04.09’N, 102°42.14’E], Bu WJ, sweeping method; 2♂♂, Dali City, Yinqiao Town, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 25°45.16’N, 100°07.31’E], 22.v.1996, Wang XH, sweeping method.

Remarks.

The wing spots are variable in [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes septemmaculatus]. They may be absent in teneral specimens, and the pair of spots in cell r4+5 is sometimes combined into one spot. The Chinese specimens have one spot in cell r4+5.

Distribution.

China (Hubei, Guizhou, Shandong, Taiwan and Yunnan Province); Algeria; Australia; Burma; Egypt; Bangladesh; India; Indonesia; Japan; Lebanon; Namibia; Nigeria; South Africa; Spain; Sundan; Uganda; Zimbabwe; Zaire.

[taxon-name[genus: Dicrotendipes][species: tamaviridis]]

[taxon-authority: Sasa, 1981]

http://species-id.net/wiki/Dicrotendipes_tamaviridis

Specimens examined.

China, Hubei: 3♂♂, Shiyan City, Wudang Mountain, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 32°30.22’N, 111°05.09’E], 16.vii.1997, Wang BX, light trap; Gansu: 1♂, Dingxi City, Min County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 34°26.34’N, 104°02.20’E], 16.v.1993, Yang ZC, light trap; Shaanxi: 1♂, Liuba County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 33°37.16’N, 106°55.12’E], 2.vii.1994, Bu WJ, light trap; Zhejiang: 6♂♂, Kaihua County, [dwc:verbatimCoordinates: 29°05.57’N, 118°23.19’E], 13.iv.2011, Lin XL, light trap.

Remarks.

Sasa (1981) described this species based on material from Japan and Niitsuma (1995) described the pupae, larvae and adults. Chinese specimens agree with the adult description of Niitsuma (1995). Some measured differences between the Chinese specimens and the specimens described by Niitsuma (1995) are shown in Table 4.

Distribution.

China (Hubei, Gansu, Shaanxi and Zhejiang Province); Japan.

Key to males of the genus [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes] in China

Supplementary Material XML Treatment for [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: flexus]
Click here for additional data file (zookeys.183.2834-treatment1.xml)

XML Treatment for [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: fusconotatus]
Click here for additional data file (zookeys.183.2834-treatment2.xml)

XML Treatment for [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: nervosus]
Click here for additional data file (zookeys.183.2834-treatment3.xml)

XML Treatment for [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: nudus]
Click here for additional data file (zookeys.183.2834-treatment4.xml)

XML Treatment for [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: pelochloris]
Click here for additional data file (zookeys.183.2834-treatment5.xml)

XML Treatment for [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: saetanumerosus]
Click here for additional data file (zookeys.183.2834-treatment6.xml)

XML Treatment for [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: septemmaculatus]
Click here for additional data file (zookeys.183.2834-treatment7.xml)

XML Treatment for [genus: Dicrotendipes][species: tamaviridis]
Click here for additional data file (zookeys.183.2834-treatment8.xml)


Acknowledgements

Financial support from the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Y3100486, Y3110395), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, grant No. 30570207, J0630963) and Fauna of China (FY120100) are acknowledged with thanks. We also thank Xue Yu for measuring some specimens.


References
Becker T. (Year: 1908) Dipteren der Kanarischen Inseln.Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 4: 1-180
Contreras-Lichtenberg R. (Year: 1986) Revision der in der Westpaläarktis verbreiteten Arten des Genus Dicrotendipes Kieffer, 1913 (Diptera, Nematocera, Chironomidae). Annalsof the Natural History Museumof Wien88/89(B): 663–726
Cranston PS,Tee RD,Credland PF,Kay AB. (Year: 1983) Chironomidae haemoglobins: their detection and role in allergy to midges in the Sudan and elsewhere.Memoirs of American Entomological Society 34: 71-87
Dendy JS,Sublette JE. (Year: 1959) The Chironomidae (= Tendipedidae: Diptera) of Alabama with descriptions of six new species.Annals of the Entomological Society of America 52: 506-519
Epler JH. (Year: 1988) Biosystematics of the genus Dicrotendipes Kieffer, 1913 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) of the world.Memoirs of American Entomological Society 36: 1-214
Freeman P. (Year: 1955) Chironomidae (Diptera Nematocera). Exploration du Parc National Albert. Mission G. F. de Witte (1933–1935)83: 3–41
Freeman P. (Year: 1957) A study of the Chironomidae (Diptera) of Africa South of the Sahara. Part III.Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 5: 323-426
Freeman P. (Year: 1961) The Chironomidae (Diptera) of Australia.Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 611-737 doi: 10.1071/ZO9610611
Frommer SI,Rauch PA. (Year: 1971) Pupal duration, adult emergence and oviposition periods for midge Dicrotendipes californicus (Johannsen) (Diptera: Chironomidae).California Vector Views 18: 33-39
Goetghebuer M. (Year: 1936) Chironomides du Congo Belge.Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 28: 453-492
Harrison AD. (Year: 1993) Dicrotendipes pilosimanus Kieffer: a description of all life stages, and features which distinguish it from Dicrotendipes septemmaculatus (Becker) (Insecta, Diptera: Chironomidae). Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums (Natural History)18: 357–370
Hashimoto H,Wongsiri T,Wongsiri N,Tirawat C,Lewvanich A,Yasumatsu K. (Year: 1981) Chironominae from rice fields of Thailand with descriptions of 7 new species.Technical Bulletin of Taxonomy Branch, Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok 7: 1-47
Johannsen OA. (Year: 1932) Chironominae of the Malayan subregion of the Dutch East Indies.Archiv für Hydrobiologie Supplement 11: 503-552
Kieffer JJ. (Year: 1913) Chironomidae et Cecidomyidae. In: Alluaud CA,Jeannel R. (Eds) Voyage de Ch.Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique orientale (1911-1912). Résultats Scientifiques, Paris: 1-43
Kieffer JJ. (Year: 1916) Tendipedides (Chironomides) de Formose conservés au Muséum National Hongrois de Budapest et déterminés par J. J. Kieffer.Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 14: 81-121
Kieffer JJ. (Year: 1921) Chironomides des Philippines et de Formose.Philippine Journal of Science 18: 557-593
Kieffer JJ. (Year: 1922) Chironomides de l’Afrique Équatoriale. (2e partie).Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 91: 1-72
Kieffer JJ. (Year: 1924) Six nouveaux Chironomides d’Afrique.Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles43: 255-261
Kieffer JJ. (Year: 1925) Chironomides d’Egypte, (Dipt.).Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypte 8: 244-313
Lenz F. (Year: 1937) Chironomariae aus Niederländisch-Indien. Larven und Puppen.Archiv für Hydrobiologie Supplement 15: 1-29
Niitsuma H. (Year: 1995) Three species of the genus Dicrotendipes (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Japan.Japanese Journal of Entomology 63: 433-449
Sasa M. (Year: 1981) Studies on chironomid midges of the Tama River. Part 4. Chironomidae recorded at a winter survey.Research Report from the National Institute for Environmental Studies 29: 79-148
Saether OA. (Year: 1969) Some Nearctic Podonominae, Diamesinae and Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae).Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 170: 1-154
Saether OA. (Year: 1980) Glossary of chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera: Chironomidae).Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement14: 1-51
Spies M,Saether OA. (Year: 2004) Notes and recommendations on taxonomy and nomenclature of Chironomidae (Diptera).Zootaxa 752: 1-90
Staeger C. (Year: 1839) Systematisk fortegnelser over de i Danmark hidtil fundne Diptera.Kröyer Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift2: 549-600
Sublette JE. (Year: 1964) Chironomidae (Diptera) of Louisiana. I. Systematics and immature stages of some lentic chironomids of west-central Louisiana.Tulane Studies in Zoology 11: 109-150
Sublette JE,Sublette MF. (Year: 1973) Family Chironomidae, In: Delfinado M,Hardy ED. (Eds) Catalogue of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, Part 1.University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu: 389-422
Wang XH,Zheng LY,Ji BC. (Year: 1990) Note the genus Dicrotendipes Kieffer from China (Diptera: Chironomidae).Sichuan Journal of Zoology 9: 28-29
Wang XH. (Year: 2000) A revised checklist of Chironomidae from China (Diptera). In: Hoffrichter O. (Ed). Late 20th Century Research on Chironomidae.An Anthology from the 13th International Symposium on Chironomidae. Shaker Verlag, Achen: 629-652

Figures

[Figure ID: F1]
Figures 1–5. 

[taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nudus] sp. n., male 1 wing 2 hypopygium (dorsal view ) 3 hypopygium (ventral view ) 45 superior volsella.



[Figure ID: F2]
Figures 6–8. 

[taxon-name: Dicrotendipes saetanumerosus] sp. n., male 6 wing 7 hypopygium (dorsal view ) 8 hypopygium (ventral view ).



Tables
[TableWrap ID: T1] Table 1. 

Lengths (in µm) and proportions of legs of [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes] nudus sp. n.


P1 P2 P3
fe 710−850, 788 670−790, 752 770−870, 818
ti 560−640, 600 570−710, 638 800−940, 870
ta1 890−1050, 991 310−380, 338 490−560, 528
ta2 380−460, 428 180−220, 197 260−300, 278
ta3 310−380, 353 110−140, 127 210−240, 218
ta4 240−300, 280 70−80, 77 110−130, 123
ta5 130−150, 143 71−83, 77 90−100, 95
LR 1.59−1.75, 1.65 0.52−0.55, 0.53 0.59−0.64, 0.61
BV 1.89−2.04, 1.96 3.45−4.87, 3.84 3.06−3.19, 3.11
SV 1.32−1.43, 1.37 4.03−4.17, 4.11 3.08−3.29, 3.20

[TableWrap ID: T2] Table 2. 

Differences between the specimens of China and of Epler (1988)


Chinese specimens Description of Epler (1988)
TL 2.68−4.25, 3.55 mm 3.74−4.40, 4.01 mm
WL 1.38−2.43, 1.82 mm 1.73−2.28, 1.96 mm
Ftu 13−33, 19 µm 16−26, 20 µm
AR 1.91−2.44, 2.17 1.95−2.27, 2.09
VR 1.05−1.14, 1.10 0.81−0.92, 0.85
LR1 1.58−1.84, 1.73 1.66−2.07, 1.86
BV1 1.71−2.75, 1.87 1.78−1.98, 1.89
BV2 3.66−4.27, 3.89 4.06−4.74, 4.22
SV2 3.72−4.17, 3.97 3.98−4.38,4.17

[TableWrap ID: T3] Table 3. 

Lengths (in µm) and proportions of legs of [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes saetanumerosus] sp. n.


P1 P2 P3
fe 970−1125, 1010 840−990, 890 950−1125, 1000
ti 750−780, 760 710−840, 750 970−1150, 1000
ta1 1400−1600, 1500 390−470, 432 620−750, 674
ta2 650−680, 660 220−270, 240 310−390, 350
ta3 525−580, 550 150−180, 160 260−310, 280
ta4 450−500, 470 90−120, 110 150−190, 170
ta5 225−270, 240 70−90, 80 90−120, 115
LR 1.87−1.96, 1.92 0.55−0.58, 0.56 0.64−0.72, 0.66
BV 1.73−1.78, 1.76 3.48−3.66, 3.54 3.00−3.29, 3.14
SV 1.76−1.95, 1.83 2.47−2.76, 2.55 4.15−5.01, 4.26

[TableWrap ID: T4] Table 4. 

Differences between the specimens of China and of Japan


Chinese specimens Japanese specimens
TL 2.94−3.60 mm 2.5−3.3 mm
Ftu 7.5−10 µm 3−10 µm
AR 1.85−2.21 1.9−2.3
VR 1.12−1.14 0.81−0.92, 0.85

[TableWrap ID: d35e1661]
1 R4+5 without setae [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nudus] sp. n.
R4+5 with setae 2
2 Small, membranous, triangular flap-like appendages present near base of anal point [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes fusconotatus] (Kieffer)
Base of anal point without appendages 3
3 Inferior volsella deeply bifid apically [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes septemmaculatus] (Becker)
Inferior volsella with simple apex or apex bulbiform 4
4 Tergite IX with median setae 5
Tergite IX without median setae 6
5 Anal point sharply reflexed ventrad; tergite IX with 6−14 setae [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes pelochloris] (Kieffer)
Anal point not sharply reflexed ventrad; tergite IX with more than 30 setae [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes saetanumerosus] sp. n.
6 Wing with more than 35 setae on R & R1 [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes nervosus] (Staeger)
Wing with less than 30 setae on R & R1 7
7 Superior volsella with 3 short setae; cylindrical, curving outward; apex bare, expanded [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes flexus] (Johannsen)
Superior volsella with 9−10 short setae; pediform, apex not expanded [taxon-name: Dicrotendipes tamaviridis] Sasa


Article Categories:
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Keywords: Keywords  Chironomidae, Dicrotendipes, new species, key, China.

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