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Review article: intestinal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in children - the relationship to food hypersensitivity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22428565     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: Lymphoid aggregates are normally found throughout the small and large intestine. Known as lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH), these aggregates are observed especially in young children and are not associated with clinical symptoms being considered 'physiological'. In children presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms the number and size of the lymphoid follicles are increased. Patients suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms (i.e. recurrent abdominal pain) should systematically undergo gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. With these indications LNH, especially of the upper but also of the lower gastrointestinal tract has been diagnosed, and in some children it may reflect a food hypersensitivity (FH) condition. AIM: To review the literature about the relationship between LNH and FH, particularly focusing on the diagnostic work-up for LNH related to FH. METHODS: We reviewed literature using Pubmed and Medline, with the search terms 'lymphoid nodular hyperplasia', 'food hypersensitivity', 'food allergy' and 'food intolerance'. We overall examined 10 studies in detail, selecting articles about the prevalence of LNH in FH patients and of FH in LNH patients. RESULTS: Collected data showed a median of 49% (range 32-67%) LNH in FH patients and a median of 66% (range 42-90%) FH in LNH patients. Literature review pointed out that the most important symptom connected with LNH and/or FH was recurrent abdominal pain, followed by diarrhoea and growth retardation. Both LNH and FH are associated with an increase in lamina propria γ/δ+ T cells, but the mechanisms by which enhanced local immune responses causing gastrointestinal symptoms still remain obscure. CONCLUSIONS: When assessing FH, we rely on clinical evaluation, including elimination diet and challenge tests, and endoscopic and immunohistochemical findings. Considering the possible co-existence of duodenal and ileo-colonic LNH, upper endoscopy can be recommended in children with suspected FH, especially in those presenting with additional upper abdominal symptoms (i.e. vomiting). Likewise, lower endoscopy might be additionally performed in patients with suspected FH and LNH of the duodenal bulb, also presenting with lower abdominal symptoms (i.e. recurrent abdominal pain).
P Mansueto; G Iacono; A Seidita; A D'Alcamo; D Sprini; A Carroccio
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-3-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1365-2036     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-3-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8707234     Medline TA:  Aliment Pharmacol Ther     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Internal Medicine, Policlinico University Hospital of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
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