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Review: Meta-analysis of the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on carcass cutability and primal yields of finishing pigs.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23148254     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The objective was to summarize previous literature, using a meta-analysis approach, on the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) when fed at doses of 5 to 10 mg/kg for up to 35 days prior to harvest on carcass cutability and belly quality of finishing pigs. The meta-analysis provided an opportunity to determine the consensus of previously published literature. Ten studies were evaluated to determine cutting yields and eight studies were used to determine belly quality in this review. Pooled dietary RAC concentrations (5 mg/kg, 7.4 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and step-up feeding programs) and pooled feeding durations (up to 35 d prior to harvest) were compared to pigs not fed RAC (controls) and were analyzed as a meta-analysis using the mixed procedure of SAS. Ractopamine inclusion was the fixed effect in the model and the individual study was considered a random variable. The only difference between RAC and control pigs for whole primals as a percentage of side weight was the whole ham (P <0.01). No other differences were detected for whole primals as a percentage of side weight. Yet, differences were detected in the standardized trimmed primal yields. A difference (P < 0.05) in percentages of the side weight was detected for the Boston butt, trimmed loin, and trimmed ham. This translated into RAC pigs having a carcass cutting yield (74.70% vs. 73.69%, respectively; P= 0.02; SED = 0.33) advantage of 1.01 percentage units and a bone in lean cutting yield (61.43% vs. 60.33%, respectively; P = 0.03; SED = 0.40) advantage of 1.10 percentage units when compared to control pigs. The advantage in bone-in cutability was a result of increased boneless sub primal yields in each of the lean cuts (shoulder, loin, and ham). When further evaluated, RAC pigs had a boneless shoulder (Boston butt + picnic) yield advantage of 0.32 percentage units (P < 0.01; SED = 0.11), a 0.43 percentage unit (P = 0.01; SED = 0.13) yield advantage in the boneless loin (Canadian back + tenderloin + sirloin), and a 0.51 percentage unit (P < 0.001; SED = 0.11) advantage in the boneless ham (inside + outside + knuckle). A boneless yield was calculated using a summation of the percentage of side weight from the boneless shoulder, boneless loin, and boneless ham, which resulted in a 1.08 percentage unit (36.28% vs. 35.20%, respectively; P = 0.002; SED = 0.25) advantage of RAC pigs when compared to control pigs. There were no subprimal yield differences (P = 0.93) in the trimmed belly between RAC pigs (12.18%) and control pigs (12.18%). However, RAC pigs (15.27 cm; 73.42) had narrower flop distances (P=0.02; SED=0.62) and greater iodine values (P=0.01; SED=0.33) respectively, when compared to control pigs (17.08 cm; 71.48).
Authors:
B M Bohrer; J M Kyle; D D Boler; P J Rincker; M J Ritter; S N Carr
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of animal science     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1525-3163     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Anim. Sci.     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-13     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8003002     Medline TA:  J Anim Sci     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
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