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Review: Adiponectin - The missing link between maternal adiposity, placental transport and fetal growth?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23245987     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Adiponectin has well-established insulin-sensitizing effects in non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes typically have low circulating levels of adiponectin, which is associated with increased fetal growth. Lean women, on the other hand, have high circulating levels of adiponectin. As a result, maternal serum adiponectin is inversely correlated to fetal growth across the full range of birth weights, suggesting that maternal adiponectin may limit fetal growth. In the mother, adiponectin is predicted to promote insulin sensitivity and stimulate glucose uptake in maternal skeletal muscle thereby reducing nutrient availability for placental transfer. Adiponectin prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid uptake in cultured primary human trophoblast cells by modulating insulin receptor substrate phosphorylation. Furthermore, chronic administration of adiponectin to pregnant mice inhibits placental insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, down-regulates the activity and expression of key placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. Preliminary findings indicate that adiponectin binds to the adiponectin receptor-2 on the trophoblast cell and activates p38 MAPK and PPAR-α, which inhibits the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. In contrast to maternal adiponectin, recent reports suggest that fetal adiponectin may promote expansion of adipose tissue and stimulate fetal growth. Regulation of placental function by adiponectin constitutes a novel physiological mechanism by which the endocrine functions of maternal adipose tissue influence fetal growth. These findings may help us better understand the factors determining birth weight in normal pregnancies and in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels such as obesity and gestational diabetes.
Authors:
I L M H Aye; T L Powell; T Jansson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-12-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  Placenta     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1532-3102     ISO Abbreviation:  Placenta     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8006349     Medline TA:  Placenta     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Affiliation:
Center for Pregnancy and Newborn Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Mail Code 7836, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA. Electronic address: aye@uthscsa.edu.
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