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Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22690368     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity.Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface.Study Selection: A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity.Data Extraction: The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted.Data Synthesis: Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P < .001) and presented mainly with acute organic brain syndrome. In most cases, the therapeutic serum lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P < .001), and dosage regimens were less than 2,000 mg/day. Specific drug combinations with lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described.Conclusions: Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate preventive measures. This recognition will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of lithium neurotoxicity.
Authors:
Ivan Netto; Vivek H Phutane
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The primary care companion to CNS disorders     Volume:  14     ISSN:  2155-7780     ISO Abbreviation:  Prim Care Companion CNS Disord     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-06-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101547532     Medline TA:  Prim Care Companion CNS Disord     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Parmar Plaza Clinic, Fatimanagar, Pune, Maharashtra, India (Dr Netto); and Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven, Connecticut (Dr Phutane).
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