Document Detail

Retinoid-induced limb malformations.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15320736     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The developing limb has been studied extensively and is a useful model to study morphogenesis. During embryogenesis, limb formation is initiated as a budding off from the embryonic lateral body wall. Limb pattern is specified by a series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, directing proximodistal, dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes. Vitamin A metabolites, especially retinoic acid, are known to play an important role in limb development, and the effects of retinoic acid may be mediated through the retinoid receptor signaling pathways. Accumulated evidence has shown that inadequate levels (excess or deficiency) of retinoic acid cause a wide range of limb malformations. Some species have the capacity to regenerate amputated limbs, and retinoids certainly affect this process, but there is debate regarding the extent that regeneration recapitulates development. In this review, phenotypic features, pathogenesis and the molecular basis of retinoid-induced limb malformations are discussed with a description of normal limb development and endogenous retinoid pathways.
Grace S Lee; Devendra M Kochhar; Michael D Collins
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current pharmaceutical design     Volume:  10     ISSN:  1381-6128     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Pharm. Des.     Publication Date:  2004  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-08-23     Completed Date:  2004-09-23     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9602487     Medline TA:  Curr Pharm Des     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2657-99     Citation Subset:  IM    
Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California 90095-1772, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Chondrogenesis / physiology
Drug Administration Routes
Limb Deformities, Congenital / chemically induced*,  physiopathology,  radiography
Osteogenesis / physiology
Retinoids / administration & dosage,  adverse effects*,  deficiency
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:

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