Document Detail

Retinoic acid signalling centres in the avian embryo identified by sites of expression of synthesising and catabolising enzymes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12701104     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Retinoic acid is an important signalling molecule in the developing embryo, but its precise distribution throughout development is very difficult to determine by available techniques. Examining the distribution of the enzymes by which it is synthesised by using in situ hybridisation is an alternative strategy. Here, we describe the distribution of three retinoic acid synthesising enzymes and one retinoic acid catabolic enzyme during the early stages of chick embryogenesis with the intention of identifying localized retinoic acid signalling regions. The enzymes involved are Raldh1, Raldh2, Raldh3, and Cyp26A1. Although some of these distributions have been described before, here we assemble them all in one species and several novel sites of enzyme expression are identified, including Hensen's node, the cardiac endoderm, the presumptive pancreatic endoderm, and the dorsal lens. This study emphasizes the dynamic pattern of expression of the enzymes that control the availability of retinoic acid as well as the role that retinoic acid plays in the development of many regions of the embryo throughout embryogenesis. This strategy provides a basis for understanding the phenotypes of retinoic acid teratology and retinoic acid-deficiency syndromes.
Aida Blentic; Emily Gale; Malcolm Maden
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists     Volume:  227     ISSN:  1058-8388     ISO Abbreviation:  Dev. Dyn.     Publication Date:  2003 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-04-17     Completed Date:  2004-03-11     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9201927     Medline TA:  Dev Dyn     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  114-27     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London Bridge, London, United Kingdom.
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MeSH Terms
Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / genetics,  metabolism*
Chick Embryo / anatomy & histology,  physiology*
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics,  metabolism*
Embryonic Structures / anatomy & histology,  physiology
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
In Situ Hybridization
Morphogenesis / physiology
Retinal Dehydrogenase
Signal Transduction / physiology*
Tretinoin / metabolism*
Reg. No./Substance:
302-79-4/Tretinoin; 9035-51-2/Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC acid 4-hydroxylase; EC 1.2.-/Aldehyde Oxidoreductases; EC Dehydrogenase

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