Document Detail

Response corridors for the medial-lateral compressive stiffness of the human arm: Implications for side impact protection.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22579220     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The biofidelity of side impact anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) is crucial in order to accurately predict injury risk of human occupants. Although the arm serves as a load path to the thorax, there are currently no biofidelity response requirements for the arm. The purpose of this study was to characterize the compressive stiffness of male and female arms in medial-lateral loading and develop corresponding stiffness response corridors. This was accomplished by performing a series of pendulum tests on 18 isolated post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) arms, obtained from four male and five female surrogates, at impact velocities of 2m/s and 4m/s. Matched tests were performed on the arm of the SID-IIs ATD for comparison. The arms were oriented vertically with the medial side placed against a rigid wall to simulate loading during a side impact automotive collision. The force versus deflection response data were normalized to that of a 50th percentile male and a 5th percentile female using a new normalizing technique based on initial arm width, and response corridors were developed for each impact velocity. A correlation analysis showed that all non-normalized dependent variables (initial stiffness, secondary stiffness, peak force, and peak deflection) were highly correlated with the initial arm width and initial arm circumference. For both impact velocities the PMHS arms exhibited a considerable amount of deflection under very low force before any substantial increase in force occurred. The compression at which the force began to increase considerably was consistent with the average tolerable medial-lateral arm compression experienced by volunteers. The initial stiffness (K1), secondary stiffness (K2), peak force, and peak deflection were found to significantly increase (p<0.05) with respect to impact velocity for both the non-normalized and normalized PMHS data. Although the response of the SID-IIs arm was similar to that of the female PMHS arms for both impact velocities, the SID-IIs arm did not exhibit a considerable toe region and therefore did not fall within the response corridors for the 5th percentile female. Overall, the results of the current study could lead to improved biofidelity of side impact ATDs by providing valuable data necessary to validate the compressive response of the ATD arm independent of the global ATD thoracic response.
Andrew R Kemper
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-5-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Accident; analysis and prevention     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-2057     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-5-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1254476     Medline TA:  Accid Anal Prev     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Virginia Tech - Wake Forest University, Center for Injury Biomechanics, 449 ICTAS Building, Stanger Street MC 0298, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States.
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