Document Detail

Reliability of ultrasound for early sexing of goat fetuses derived from natural mating and from fresh, frozen and vitrified embryo transfer.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20047734     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The aim of the present study was to identify the migration period of the genital tubercle and its later differentiation into external genital structures in fetuses derived from natural mating and fetuses from fresh, frozen and vitrified embryo transfer. A transrectal ultrasound with a double-frequency linear transducer (6.0 and 8.0 MHz) was used to monitor 123 goat fetuses, which were allocated to one of four groups: fetuses originating from controlled natural mating (G1, n = 32) and fetuses derived from fresh (G2, n = 34), frozen (G3, n = 30) and vitrified (G4, n = 27) embryo transfer. The transferable embryos were collected 7 days after mating by laparoscopy. Migration of the genital tubercle occurred significantly earlier (P < 0.05) in G1 than in G2, G3 and G4. The visualisation of the scrotum, prepuce and vulva occurred significantly earlier (P < 0.05) in G1 than in G2, G3 and G4. Our results show that fetal sexing is feasible after 55 days for fetuses from natural mating and after 60 days in fetuses from fresh and cryopreserved embryos. Thus, real-time ultrasonography is a reliable tool for fetal sex determination in goats after Day 50 of pregnancy, taking into account both the location of the genital tubercle and the identification of external genital structures.
L M Freitas Neto; M H B Santos; C R Aguiar Filho; J M Almeida-Irm?o; E R Santos Junior; E L C Caldas; P F Lima; M A L Oliveira
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Reproduction, fertility, and development     Volume:  22     ISSN:  1031-3613     ISO Abbreviation:  Reprod. Fertil. Dev.     Publication Date:  2010  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-01-05     Completed Date:  2010-04-22     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8907465     Medline TA:  Reprod Fertil Dev     Country:  Australia    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  489-93     Citation Subset:  IM    
Laborat?rio de Biot?cnicas Aplicadas ? Reprodu??o do Departamento de Medicina Veterin?ria da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irm?os, 52171-900 Recife-PE, Brasil.
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MeSH Terms
Cryopreservation / veterinary
Embryo Transfer / methods,  veterinary
Gestational Age
Goats / embryology*
Reproducibility of Results
Sex Determination (Analysis) / methods,  veterinary*
Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods,  veterinary*

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