Document Detail


Relative importance of school bus-related microenvironments to children's pollutant exposure.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16295266     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Real-time concentrations of black carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate counts, as well as integrated and real-time fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were measured inside school buses during long commutes on Los Angeles Unified School District bus routes, at bus stops along the routes, at the bus loading/unloading zone in front of the selected school, and at nearby urban "background" sites. Across all of the pollutants, mean concentrations during bus commutes were higher than in any other microenvironment. Mean exposures (mean concentration times time spent in a particular microenvironment) in bus commutes were between 50 and 200 times greater than those for the loading/unloading microenvironment, and 20-40 times higher than those for the bus stops, depending on the pollutant. Although the analyzed school bus commutes represented only 10% of a child's day, on average they contributed one-third of a child's 24-hr overall black carbon exposure during a school day. For species closely related to vehicle exhaust, the within- cabin exposures were generally dominated by the effect of surrounding traffic when windows were open and by the bus's own exhaust when windows were closed. Low-emitting buses generally exhibited high concentrations only when traveling behind a diesel vehicle, whereas high-emitting buses exhibited high concentrations both when following other diesel vehicles and when idling without another diesel vehicle in front of the bus. To reduce school bus commute exposures, we recommend minimizing commute times, avoiding caravanning with other school buses, using the cleanest buses for the longest bus routes, maintaining conventional diesel buses to eliminate visible emissions, and transitioning to cleaner fuels and advanced particulate control technologies as soon as possible.
Authors:
Eduardo Behrentz; Lisa D Sabin; Arthur M Winer; Dennis R Fitz; David V Pankratz; Steven D Colome; Scott A Fruin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)     Volume:  55     ISSN:  1096-2247     ISO Abbreviation:  J Air Waste Manag Assoc     Publication Date:  2005 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-11-18     Completed Date:  2005-12-15     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9503111     Medline TA:  J Air Waste Manag Assoc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1418-30     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Environmental Science and Engineering Program, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis
California
Carbon / analysis
Child
Environment*
Environmental Exposure*
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide / analysis
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic / analysis
Schools
Transportation*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic; 10102-44-0/Nitrogen Dioxide; 7440-44-0/Carbon

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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