Document Detail

Relative importance of physiological precursors for ketogenesis in the nutritional homeostasis of the development of the embryonic chick.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3828397     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This paper investigates the relative importances of specific amino acids, and, in particular, branched chain amino acids and their keto derivatives as possible ketogenic precursors in suspensions of liver cells isolated from chick embryos. Addition of the branched chain keto acids stimulated ketogenesis. The order of potency was alpha-ketoisocaproic acid greater than alpha-ketoisovaleric acid greater than DL-alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid. The relative order of effectiveness for branched chain keto acids was maintained at all comparable concentrations, and in each case maximum rates were observed with concentrations of 1-2 mM. In contrast to the stimulation of ketogenesis by their keto derivatives, branched chain amino acids were ineffective as precursors for ketogenesis. Of the other amino acids (utilised at concentrations present in chick embryo plasma) only Tyr, Lys, Phe and Arg produced significant increases in ketone body formation above the endogenous rate. At these physiological concentrations, the effectiveness of the amino acids were in the order of Tyr greater than Lys = Phe greater than Arg. The interactions between three groups of ketogenic precursor (fatty acids, amino acids and keto amino acids, all at physiological concentrations), produced rates of ketogenesis that were purely additive. These results indicate that high concentrations of hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate found in plasma of developing chick embryos may arise from hepatic metabolism of several distinct precursors. The relative importance of each category of precursor may vary with the precise developmental status of animals.
A J Bate; A J Dickson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biochimica et biophysica acta     Volume:  924     ISSN:  0006-3002     ISO Abbreviation:  Biochim. Biophys. Acta     Publication Date:  1987 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1987-05-21     Completed Date:  1987-05-21     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0217513     Medline TA:  Biochim Biophys Acta     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  7-12     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / metabolism*
Amino Acids, Branched-Chain / metabolism
Chick Embryo
Keto Acids / metabolism*
Ketone Bodies / metabolism*
Liver / embryology*,  metabolism
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Structure-Activity Relationship
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Amino Acids, Branched-Chain; 0/Keto Acids; 0/Ketone Bodies

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