Document Detail

Relation of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness to coronary heart disease, Part II: Cardiovascular fitness and the safety and efficacy of physical activity prescription.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1575068     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: This paper is the second of two reports that together review the scientific evidence regarding the inverse relation between physical activity and cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Using a MEDLINE search with the key words exercise, physical fitness, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease, more than 75 articles were reviewed, evaluating study design, measurement error, bias and confounding, the strength of associations, consistency of results, temporal and dose-response relation, and biologic plausibility. RESULTS: The relative risk in epidemiologic studies comparing the least to the most fit categories ranges from 1.2 to 4.8, which is greater than that for physical inactivity. The differences between cardiovascular fitness (an attribute) and physical activity (a behavior) are highlighted. The range of correlation (r = 0.02 to 0.44) between cardiovascular fitness and physical activity is discussed relative to measurement error and genetic and environmental factors. Studies reporting the safety of regular physical activity suggest an injury rate as high as 35 injuries per 100 persons per year. Efficacy studies limited to secondary prevention trials report a 66 percent compliance rate and 15 percent reduction in total mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The scientific evidence implying a causal relation between cardiovascular fitness and CHD is strongly positive, but the clinical and public health implications are unclear. Further research and clinical guidelines are suggested.
C B Eaton
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice     Volume:  5     ISSN:  0893-8652     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Board Fam Pract     Publication Date:    1992 Mar-Apr
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1992-06-04     Completed Date:  1992-06-04     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8807505     Medline TA:  J Am Board Fam Pract     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  157-65     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Family Medicine, Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Pawtucket.
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MeSH Terms
Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*,  prevention & control,  therapy
Coronary Disease / epidemiology*,  prevention & control,  therapy
Epidemiologic Methods
Exercise Test
Exercise Therapy / adverse effects,  standards*
Follow-Up Studies
Physical Fitness*
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Research / standards
Treatment Outcome
Grant Support
5T32 HL07642-04/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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