Document Detail

Relation between food reinforcement and dopamine genotypes and its effect on food intake in smokers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15213032     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Food reinforcement and dopaminergic activity may influence food consumption, but research on whether they interact has not been performed. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of food reinforcement and the interaction of food reinforcement with the dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) genotype and the dopamine D(2) receptor (DRD(2)) genotype on energy consumption. DESIGN: We studied food-consumption and reinforcing-value-of-food tasks in 88 smokers of European ancestry before they enrolled in smoking-cessation treatment. In the food-consumption task, subjects tasted and consumed 8 snack foods ad libitum. The reinforcing-value-of-food task assessed how hard subjects would work for food. RESULTS: Significant interactions between dopamine genotypes and food reinforcement were observed. Subjects high in food reinforcement who lacked an SLC6A3*9 allele consumed significantly more calories (>150 kcal; P = 0.015) than did subjects low in food reinforcement or those high in food reinforcement who carried at least one SLC6A3*9 allele. Similarly, subjects high in food reinforcement who carried at least one DRD(2)*A1 allele consumed >130 kcal more (P = 0.021) than did subjects low in food reinforcement or those high in food reinforcement who lacked a DRD(2)*A1 allele. There was also a main effect of food reinforcement on energy intake (P = 0.005), with subjects high in food reinforcement consuming 104 kcal (or 30%) more than did subjects low in food reinforcement. CONCLUSIONS: Food reinforcement has a significant effect on energy intake, and the effect is moderated by the dopamine loci SLC6A3 and DRD(2).
Leonard H Epstein; Suzanne M Wright; Rocco A Paluch; John J Leddy; Larry W Hawk; Jodie L Jaroni; Frances G Saad; Susan Crystal-Mansour; Peter G Shields; Caryn Lerman
Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  80     ISSN:  0002-9165     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2004 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-06-23     Completed Date:  2004-07-13     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  82-8     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Departments of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, 14214-3000, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Analysis of Variance
Bupropion / therapeutic use
Conditioning, Operant
Dopamine / genetics,  metabolism*
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use
Energy Intake / genetics,  physiology*
Membrane Glycoproteins*
Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics*
Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics*
Polymorphism, Genetic
Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics*
Reinforcement (Psychology)*
Smoking Cessation*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0/Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0/Membrane Glycoproteins; 0/Membrane Transport Proteins; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0/Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0/SLC6A3 protein, human; 34841-39-9/Bupropion

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