Document Detail

Regulation of gene expression by carbon dioxide.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21224229     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is a physiological gas found at low levels in the atmosphere and produced in cells during the process of aerobic respiration. Consequently, the levels of CO(2) within tissues are usually significantly higher than those found externally. Shifts in tissue levels of CO(2) (leading to either hypercapnia or hypocapnia) are associated with a number of pathophysiological conditions in humans and can occur naturally in niche habitats such as those of burrowing animals. Clinical studies have indicated that such altered CO(2) levels can impact upon disease progression. Recent advances in our understanding of the biology of CO(2) has shown that like other physiological gases such as molecular oxygen (O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO), CO(2) levels can be sensed by cells resulting in the initiation of physiological and pathophysiological responses. Acute CO(2) sensing in neurons and peripheral and central chemoreceptors is important in rapidly activated responses including olfactory signalling, taste sensation and cardiorespiratory control. Furthermore, a role for CO(2) in the regulation of gene transcription has recently been identified with exposure of cells and model organisms to high CO(2) leading to suppression of genes involved in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. This latter, transcriptional regulatory role for CO(2), has been largely attributed to altered activity of the NF-B family of transcription factors. Here, we review our evolving understanding of how CO(2) impacts upon gene transcription.
Cormac T Taylor; Eoin P Cummins
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2011-01-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of physiology     Volume:  589     ISSN:  1469-7793     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Physiol. (Lond.)     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-04-13     Completed Date:  2012-03-06     Revised Date:  2013-07-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0266262     Medline TA:  J Physiol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  797-803     Citation Subset:  IM    
UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
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MeSH Terms
Carbon Dioxide / physiology*
Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology*
Gene Expression Regulation*
Hypercapnia / genetics,  metabolism
Hypocapnia / genetics,  metabolism
Oxygen / physiology*
Signal Transduction
Reg. No./Substance:
124-38-9/Carbon Dioxide; 7782-44-7/Oxygen

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