Document Detail

Regression-based developmental models exemplified for Wisconsin Card Sorting Test parameters: statistics and software for individual predictions.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17162719     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The prediction of an individual's score is relevant in clinical research and requires normative data and a statistical rationale. In the case of developmental research the latter is typically a set of descriptive statistics (e.g., standard scores) for a set of age groups. Here we illustrate a multiple regression approach with a set of 345 Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data obtained from subjects aged 6 to 26 years. We modeled linear and curvilinear age effects for each of the 11 WCST variables and, based on this, determined confidence limits for the expected value (mean) and the prediction of individual scores. In these multiple regression models, which accounted for 2% to 26% of the variance, curvilinear age effects clearly dominated linear ones, suggesting the features under scrutiny to be negatively accelerated functions of age. Finally, we developed a statistics program that can be used to apply multiple regression models for individual predictions that are based on normative data with up to 7 predictor variables. We discuss the conditions of applicability of the approach, compare it with the conventional standard score approach, discuss its cognitive-developmental implications, and outline the applicability in applied research and practising.
Christoph Klein; Friedrich Foerster; Klaus Hartnegg
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology     Volume:  29     ISSN:  1380-3395     ISO Abbreviation:  J Clin Exp Neuropsychol     Publication Date:  2007 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-12-12     Completed Date:  2007-03-21     Revised Date:  2008-04-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8502170     Medline TA:  J Clin Exp Neuropsychol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  25-35     Citation Subset:  IM    
School of Psychology, University of Wales, Bangor, The Brigantia Building, Penrallt Road, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2AS, Wales, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Attention / physiology
Confidence Intervals
Human Development / physiology*
Memory, Short-Term / physiology
Models, Biological*
Neuropsychological Tests*
Predictive Value of Tests
Regression Analysis*

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