Document Detail

Regional ependymal upregulation of vimentin in Chiari II malformation, aqueductal stenosis, and hydromyelia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15255035     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100beta protein were studied by immunocytochemistry in the ependyma of patients with Chiari II malformations, congenital aqueductal stenosis, and hydromyelia. Paraffin sections of brains and spinal cords of 16 patients were examined, 14 with Chiari II malformations, most with aqueductal stenosis and/or hydromyelia as associated features, and 2 patients with congenital aqueductal stenosis without Chiari malformation. Patients ranged in age from 20-wk gestation to 48 years. The results demonstrated: 1) in the fetus and young infant with Chiari II malformations, congenital aqueductal stenosis, and hydromyelia, vimentin is focally upregulated in the ependyma only in areas of dysgenesis and not in the ependyma throughout the ventricular system; 2) GFAP and S-100beta protein are not coexpressed, indicating that the selective upregulation of vimentin is not simple maturational delay; 3) vimentin upregulation also is seen in the ependymal remnants of the congenital atretic cerebral aqueduct, not associated with Chiari malformation; 4) in the older child and adult with Chiari II malformation, vimentin overexpression in the ependyma becomes more generalized in the lateral ventricles as well, hence evolves into a nonspecific upregulation. The interpretation from these findings leads to speculation that it is unlikely that ependymal vimentin is directly involved in the pathogenesis of Chiari II malformation, but may reflect a secondary upregulation due to defective expression of another gene. This gene may be one of rhombomeric segmentation that also plays a role in defective programming of the paraxial mesoderm for the basioccipital and supraoccipital bones resulting in a small posterior fossa. This interpretation supports the hypothesis of a molecular genetic defect, rather than a mechanical cause, as the etiology of the Chiari II malformation.
Harvey B Sarnat
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society     Volume:  7     ISSN:  1093-5266     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.     Publication Date:    2004 Jan-Feb
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-07-16     Completed Date:  2004-11-02     Revised Date:  2006-05-08    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9809673     Medline TA:  Pediatr Dev Pathol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  48-60     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and UCLA School of Medicine, 4221 North Tower, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Acridine Orange
Arnold-Chiari Malformation / metabolism*
Brain Diseases / metabolism*
Cerebral Aqueduct*
Child, Preschool
Constriction, Pathologic
Ependyma / metabolism*
Fluorescent Dyes
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism
Infant, Newborn
Middle Aged
Nerve Growth Factors
S100 Proteins / metabolism
Syringomyelia / metabolism*
Vimentin / metabolism*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Fluorescent Dyes; 0/Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0/Nerve Growth Factors; 0/S-100 calcium-binding protein beta subunit; 0/S100 Proteins; 0/Vimentin; 65-61-2/Acridine Orange

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