Document Detail

Refinement of long-term toxicity and carcinogenesis studies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2197145     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The chance that alternatives will completely replace animals for toxicology research in the foreseeable future is nil. Continual refinement of animal toxicity and carcinogenesis studies, however, can be an effective means of reducing the numbers of animals used and conserving time and resources without compromising scientific quality. We must continue to strive to find species and strains that can metabolize chemicals similar to humans, are small enough to be housed in large numbers, and have low prevalence of spontaneous lesions with sufficient life span to express the toxic and carcinogenic potential of chemicals. Adequate care of animals with control of variables such as light, temperature, diet, bedding, diseases, and genetic characters of laboratory animals will decrease the variability. Humane considerations and euthanasia of animals with large masses and other conditions interfering with eating and drinking, major injuries and ulcers related to husbandry and treatment, and diseases indicating pain and suffering will help not only to alleviate further pain and distress but also to facilitate collection of tissues without secondary complications for detection of chemical treatment-related lesions. Limiting the duration of studies to decrease the variability due to age-associated changes will also refine long-term studies. Other considerations for refinement of carcinogenesis studies include selection of the most sensitive sex of one or more species for evaluation of selected chemicals in a class where toxic and carcinogenic potential of other representative chemicals are known. Genetically engineered animal models with known oncogenes may reduce the duration and increase the sensitivity of carcinogenesis studies with a reduction in the use of animals.
G N Rao; J Huff
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology     Volume:  15     ISSN:  0272-0590     ISO Abbreviation:  Fundam Appl Toxicol     Publication Date:  1990 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1990-08-30     Completed Date:  1990-08-30     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8200838     Medline TA:  Fundam Appl Toxicol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  33-43     Citation Subset:  IM    
National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.
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MeSH Terms
Animal Husbandry
Animal Testing Alternatives / trends*
Animals, Laboratory
Carcinogenicity Tests / standards*
Carcinogens / toxicity
Species Specificity
Reg. No./Substance:
Comment In:
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1991 Apr;16(3):616-8   [PMID:  1855628 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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