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Reduction of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Healthy Infants in Iran: Randomized Controlled Trial.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21504887     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess whether counseling both mothers and fathers reduces their infants' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). METHODS: Participants were 130 nonsmoking children aged less than 1 year, exposed to their fathers' or mothers' smoking, and recruited from a health center in southern Tehran. Eligible families were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Infant urine samples were collected, and parents were interviewed at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up in each of the 2 groups. Mothers of the intervention group were provided 3 counseling sessions, one of which was face to face and 2 of which were by telephone. Fathers were provided 3 counseling sessions by telephone. Parents were also given an educational pamphlet and a sticker depicting a smoke-free home. The control group received usual care. Changes in infant urinary cotinine levels, parental cigarette consumption in the presence of the child, and home- and car-smoking bans were assessed. RESULTS: The intervention was effective in reducing infant urinary cotinine levels (1-tailed p = .029). There was a greater decrease in the total daily cigarette consumption in the presence of the child in the intervention group compared with the control group, and the differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant (1-tailed p = .03). While the differences between home-smoking bans in the 2 groups were statistically significant (1-tailed p = .049), the differences between car-smoking bans did not reach significance. Conclusion: Counseling similar to that employed in other countries can reduce infant exposure to SHS, suggesting generalizability.
Azam Baheiraei; Roghieh Kharaghani; Afshin Mohsenifar; Anoshirvan Kazemnejad; Siamak Alikhani; Hooman Sharifi Milani; Ali Mota; Melbourne F Hovell
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-4-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1469-994X     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-4-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9815751     Medline TA:  Nicotine Tob Res     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Corresponding Author: Azam Baheiraei, Ph.D., Tehran University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 15745-1453, Tehran, Iran. Telephone: 98-21-66943187; Fax: 98-21-66941668; E-mail:
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