Document Detail

Reducing acrylamide precursors in raw materials derived from wheat and potato.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18624429     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
A review of agronomic and genetic approaches as strategies for the mitigation of acrylamide risk in wheat and potato is presented. Acrylamide is formed through the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking, such as frying, roasting, or baking, and the main precursors are free asparagine and reducing sugars. In wheat flour, acrylamide formation is determined by asparagine levels and asparagine accumulation increases dramatically in response to sulfur deprivation and, to a much lesser extent, with nitrogen feeding. In potatoes, in which sugar concentrations are much lower, the relationships between acrylamide and its precursors are more complex. Much attention has been focused on reducing the levels of sugars in potatoes as a means of reducing acrylamide risk. However, the level of asparagine as a proportion of the total free amino acid pool has been shown to be a key parameter, indicating that when sugar levels are limiting, competition between asparagine and the other amino acids for participation in the Maillard reaction determines acrylamide formation. Genetic approaches to reducing acrylamide risk include the identification of cultivars and other germplasm in which free asparagine and/or sugar levels are low and the manipulation of genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism and signaling. These approaches are made more difficult by genotype/environment interactions that can result in a genotype being "good" in one environment but "poor" in another. Another important consideration is the effect that any change could have on flavor in the cooked product. Nevertheless, as both wheat and potato are regarded as of relatively high acrylamide risk compared with, for example, maize and rice, it is essential that changes are achieved that mitigate the problem.
Nira Muttucumaru; J Stephen Elmore; Tanya Curtis; Donald S Mottram; Martin A J Parry; Nigel G Halford
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2008-07-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry     Volume:  56     ISSN:  1520-5118     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Agric. Food Chem.     Publication Date:  2008 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-08-07     Completed Date:  2008-09-29     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374755     Medline TA:  J Agric Food Chem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  6167-72     Citation Subset:  IM    
Centre for Crop Genetic Improvement, Plant Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom.
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MeSH Terms
Acrylamide / analysis*,  chemical synthesis*
Asparagine / analysis,  metabolism
Carbohydrates / analysis
Carcinogens / chemical synthesis
Hot Temperature
Maillard Reaction
Plants, Genetically Modified
Solanum tuberosum / chemistry*,  genetics,  metabolism
Triticum / chemistry*,  genetics,  metabolism
Grant Support
//Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Carbohydrates; 0/Carcinogens; 7006-34-0/Asparagine; 79-06-1/Acrylamide

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