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Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20971129     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue-consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food subsequent to conditioning. In Experiment 2, we conditioned experimentally naïve blackbirds using free choice of colored (red) and flavored (NaCl) food paired with an anthraquinone- (postingestive, cathartic purgative), methiocarb- (postingestive, cholinesterase inhibitor), or methyl anthranilate-based repellent (preingestive, trigeminal irritant). Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents avoided the color and flavor of foods experienced during conditioning; methyl anthranilate conditioned only color (not flavor) avoidance. In Experiment 3, we used a third group of blackbirds to evaluate effects of novel comparison cues (blue, citric acid) subsequent to conditioning with red and NaCl paired with anthraquinone or methiocarb. Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents did not avoid conditioned color or flavor cues when novel comparison cues were presented during the test. Thus, blackbirds cognitively associate pre- and postingestive consequences with visual cues, and reliably integrate visual and gustatory experience with postingestive consequences to procure nutrients and avoid toxins.
Authors:
Scott J Werner; Frederick D Provenza
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-10-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiology & behavior     Volume:  102     ISSN:  1873-507X     ISO Abbreviation:  Physiol. Behav.     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-12-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0151504     Medline TA:  Physiol Behav     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  158-63     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Affiliation:
USDA/APHIS/ WS/ National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521-2154, United States. Scott.J.Werner@aphis.usda.gov
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