Document Detail


Reciprocity in marital and social networks: illustration with Indian data.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8543298     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Three measures of reciprocity, denoted s2, s3, and s4, that are applicable to both simple and weighted networks are considered here. By reciprocity I mean symmetry or mutuality of ties between different vertices of the network. These measures have simple formulas except in some extreme situations and can be used for most networks. Among the three measures, s2 is generally preferred, although the choice in any situation depends on the validity of the assumptions underlying its derivation and its discriminating power. I illustrate how reciprocity in the network of marital exchanges between different surnames and settlements can reveal something about the structure of a population. Reciprocity is higher if the endogamous group is close-knit, is well settled in a smaller geographic area, and has a low surname diversity index. Thus reciprocity is high in the Vadde, somewhat high in the Pattusali, and low in the Yanadi. Although s2, s3, and s4 measure reciprocity in a network as a whole, the local reciprocity index can be used to see how reciprocally a particular vertex is tied to others and can help in the study of the direction of the exchanges. The low local reciprocity indexes of the neighborhood settlements of the Yanadi in some regions indicate that the settlements are involved in one-way marital exchanges with other settlements. The study of reciprocity can be relevant in other contexts also. High reciprocity in a well-settled population was also observed in the social networks of 21 villages with respect to the "help" relation. It was found that reciprocity is highly negatively correlated with the percentage of migrants in the village but does not show high positive or negative correlation with other demographic, socioeconomic, and location characteristics of the villages.
Authors:
A R Rao
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Human biology     Volume:  67     ISSN:  0018-7143     ISO Abbreviation:  Hum. Biol.     Publication Date:  1995 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1996-02-14     Completed Date:  1996-02-14     Revised Date:  2011-04-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0116717     Medline TA:  Hum Biol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  887-904     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Theoretical Statistics and Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, India.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Female
Group Processes*
Hierarchy, Social
Humans
India
Male
Marriage / ethnology*
Models, Theoretical
Names
Social Support*

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