Document Detail

Reciprocal changes in forebrain contents of glycogen and of glutamate/glutamine during early memory consolidation in the day-old chick.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14642648     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Passive avoidance learning is with advantage studied in day-old chicks trained to distinguish between beads of two different colors, of which one at training was associated with aversive taste. During the first 30-min post-training, two periods of glutamate release occur in the forebrain. One period is immediately after the aversive experience, when glutamate release is confined to the left hemisphere. A second release, 30 min later, may be bilateral, perhaps with preponderance of the right hemisphere. The present study showed increased pool sizes of glutamate and glutamine, specifically in the left hemisphere, at the time when the first glutamate release occurs, indicating de novo synthesis of glutamate/glutamine from glucose or glycogen, which are the only possible substrates. Behavioral evidence that memory is extinguished by intracranial administration at this time of iodoacetate, an inhibitor of glycolysis and glycogenolysis, and that the extinction of memory is counteracted by injection of glutamine, supports this concept. A decrease in forebrain glycogen of similar magnitude and coinciding with the increase in glutamate and glutamine suggests that glycogen rather than glucose is the main source of newly synthesized glutamate/glutamine. The second activation of glutamatergic activity 30 min after training, when memory is consolidated into stable, long-term memory, is associated with a bilateral increase in pool size of glutamate/glutamine. No glycogenolysis was observed at this time, but again there is a temporal correlation with sensitivity to inhibition by iodoacetate and rescue by glutamine, indicating the importance of de novo synthesis of glutamate/glutamine from glucose or glycogen.
Leif Hertz; Brona S O'Dowd; Kim T Ng; Marie E Gibbs
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Brain research     Volume:  994     ISSN:  0006-8993     ISO Abbreviation:  Brain Res.     Publication Date:  2003 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-12-03     Completed Date:  2004-01-29     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0045503     Medline TA:  Brain Res     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  226-33     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Analysis of Variance
Animals, Newborn / growth & development
Avoidance Learning / physiology
Behavior, Animal
Brain Chemistry
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
Functional Laterality
Glutamic Acid / metabolism*
Glutamine / metabolism*
Glycogen / metabolism*
Memory / physiology*
Prosencephalon / growth & development,  metabolism*
Time Factors
Reg. No./Substance:
56-85-9/Glutamine; 56-86-0/Glutamic Acid; 9005-79-2/Glycogen

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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