Document Detail


Recent fertility and mortality trends among aboriginal and nonaboriginal populations of central Siberia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9164050     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
We examine mortality and fertility patterns of aboriginal (primarily Evenki and Keto) and Russian (i.e., nonaboriginal) populations from the Baykit District of Central Siberia for the period 1982-1994. Mortality rates in the aboriginal population of Baykit are substantially greater than those observed in the Russians and are comparable to levels recently reported for other indigenous Siberian groups. Infant mortality rates average 48 per 1000 live births among Baykit aboriginals, three times greater than the Russians of the district (15 per 1000 births) and more than double the rates for Inuit and Indian populations of Canada. Similarly, crude death rates of the Baykit aboriginals are twice as high as those observed in either the Baykit Russians or the Canadian aboriginal populations (13 vs 6-7 deaths per 1000 individuals). Birth rates of the indigenous population of Baykit are higher than those of the Russians (33 vs. 15 births per 1000 individuals) but are comparable to those of Canadian aboriginal groups. Violence and accidents are the leading causes of adult male mortality in both ethnic groups, whereas circulatory diseases have emerged as the prime cause of death in women. The greater male mortality resulting from violence and accidents is a widely observed cross-cultural phenomenon. The emergence of circulatory diseases as a major mortality risk for women, however, appears to be linked to specific lifestyle changes associated with Soviet reorganization of indigenous Siberian societies. Marked declines in mortality and increases in fertility were observed in the Baykit aboriginal population during the mid to late 1980s with the government's implementation of anti-alcohol policies. The decline in mortality, however, was largely erased during the early 1990s, as the region became increasingly isolated and marginalized following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Demographic trends in the Baykit District suggest that because the indigenous groups have become more isolated, many are returning to a more traditional subsistence lifestyle.
This study compares fertility and mortality patterns among the aboriginal and Russian population in the Evenk Autonomous Region in Siberia. Data were obtained from birth and death records at Baykit Hospital during 1982-94 for the population of the district capital at Baykit and nine isolated rural villages. The indigenous population are semi-subsistence reindeer herders. Cause of death data were obtained from a subsample of 164 persons (101 aboriginals and 24 Russians) from Surinda, Poligus, and Sulamai villages. Findings indicate that aboriginal populations had higher mortality rates. Infant mortality was three times higher than in the Russian population at 48.2 infant aboriginal deaths per 1000 births. The crude death rate among aboriginals was double that of Russians at 12.9 deaths per 1000 aboriginals. The crude birth rate was 33 per 1000 aboriginals. The rate of natural increase was an estimated 2% annually among aboriginals and 1% among Russians. Infant mortality and crude death rates among aboriginals were twice as high as among aboriginals in Canada. Canadian and Siberian aboriginal crude birth rates were similar. In both Russian and aboriginal groups, violent and accidental deaths showed strong gender differences. 56% of male aboriginals and 59% of male Russians died from accidents and violence, while only 31% of aboriginal women and 29% of Russian women did. Most Russian accidental and violent deaths were due to asphyxia and poisoning, while most aboriginal accidental and violent deaths were due to gunshot trauma, in part due to alcohol consumption. About 33% of deaths among aboriginal women and 29% among Russian women were due to circulatory diseases. Russian mortality has remained stable over the last 13 years. Aboriginal mortality and fertility fluctuated. The Russian population grew more rapidly over the past 13 years, but levels varied between villages and between villages and Baykit.
Authors:
W R Leonard; A Keenleyside; E Ivakine
Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Human biology     Volume:  69     ISSN:  0018-7143     ISO Abbreviation:  Hum. Biol.     Publication Date:  1997 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-06-24     Completed Date:  1997-06-24     Revised Date:  2011-04-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0116717     Medline TA:  Hum Biol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  403-17     Citation Subset:  IM; J    
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
American Native Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*
Birth Rate / trends
Canada / epidemiology
Cause of Death
Emigration and Immigration*
Female
Fertility*
Humans
Life Style
Male
Mortality* / trends
Russia / ethnology
Siberia / epidemiology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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