Document Detail

Recent trends in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23338799     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE To examine trends in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and median household income. DESIGN An ecologic study of trends in the diagnosis of ADHD using the Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) health plan medical records. Rates of ADHD diagnosis were derived using Poisson regression analyses after adjustments for potential confounders. SETTING Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena. PARTICIPANTS All children who received care at the KPSC from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010 (n = 842 830). MAIN EXPOSURE Period of ADHD diagnosis (in years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Incidence of physician-diagnosed ADHD in children aged 5 to 11 years. RESULTS Rates of ADHD diagnosis were 2.5% in 2001 and 3.1% in 2010, a relative increase of 24%. From 2001 to 2010, the rate increased among whites (4.7%-5.6%; relative risk [RR] = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), blacks (2.6%- 4.1%; RR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-1.9), and Hispanics (1.7%-2.5%; RR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.7). Rates for Asian/Pacific Islander and other racial groups remained unchanged over time. The increase in ADHD diagnosis among blacks was largely driven by an increase in females (RR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3). Although boys were more likely to be diagnosed as having ADHD than girls, results suggest the sex gap for blacks may be closing over time. Children living in high-income households were at increased risk of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that the rate of ADHD diagnosis among children in the health plan notably has increased over time. We observed disproportionately high ADHD diagnosis rates among white children and notable increases among black girls.
Darios Getahun; Steven J Jacobsen; Michael J Fassett; Wansu Chen; Kitaw Demissie; George G Rhoads
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  JAMA pediatrics     Volume:  167     ISSN:  2168-6211     ISO Abbreviation:  JAMA Pediatr     Publication Date:  2013 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-03-05     Completed Date:  2013-04-18     Revised Date:  2013-09-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101589544     Medline TA:  JAMA Pediatr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  282-8     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California Medical Group, 100 S Los Robles Ave,Second Floor, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Age Distribution
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis,  epidemiology*,  ethnology
California / epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Continental Population Groups
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Comment In:
JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Jul;167(7):674-5   [PMID:  23700143 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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