Document Detail

Real-world energy use and emission rates for idling long-haul trucks and selected idle reduction technologies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19645270     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and emissions using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine emission factors were measured using a portable emission measurement system. Indirect emissions from SP were based on average utility grid emission factors. Base engine fuel use and APU and SP electrical load were analyzed for 20 trucks monitored for more than 1 yr during 2.76 million mi of activity within 42 U.S. states. The average base engine fuel use varied from 0.46 to 0.65 gal/hr. The average APU fuel use varied from 0.24 to 0.41 gal/hr. Fuel-use rates are typically lowest in mild weather, highest in hot or cold weather, and depend on engine speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]). Compared with the base engine, APU fuel use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are lower by 36-47%. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions are lower by 80-90%. Reductions in particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon emissions vary from approximately 10 to over 50%. SP leads to more substantial reductions, except for SO2. The actual achievable reductions will be lower because only a fraction of base engine usage will be replaced by APUs, SP, or both. Recommendations are made for reducing base engine fuel use and emissions, accounting for variability in fuel use and emissions reductions, and further work to quantify real-world avoided fuel use and emissions.
H Christopher Frey; Po-Yao Kuo
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)     Volume:  59     ISSN:  1096-2247     ISO Abbreviation:  J Air Waste Manag Assoc     Publication Date:  2009 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-08-03     Completed Date:  2009-09-03     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9503111     Medline TA:  J Air Waste Manag Assoc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  857-64     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Conservation of Energy Resources
Equipment Design
Motor Vehicles*
Vehicle Emissions / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Gasoline; 0/Vehicle Emissions

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