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Re-inventing intratumoral immunotherapy for melanoma.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21554094     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Immunotherapeutics have been applied intratumorally to manage accessible lesions and to induce systemic immunity in malignant melanoma. Intratumoral bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used for 40 years, and intratumoral BCG, IL-2, IFN-α and imiquimod are recommended as treatment options for patients with in-transit melanoma metastases. Regression of cutaneous metastases can be achieved. Subcutaneous metastases are more refractory, and regression of uninjected, visceral metastases is infrequent. Other microbial products, cytokines, chemicals, immune cells, antibody and viral and plasmid vectors expressing immunologically active molecules have been tested. Antitumor activity has not been demonstrated to be superior to that of intratumoral BCG. There are few controlled trials, and whether survival is impacted with any approach has not yet been established. The immunotherapeutics applied and the intratumoral administration procedure itself can activate responses that are immune inhibitory. More rigorous clinical testing and improved understanding and modulation of regulatory immune responses are necessary.
Authors:
Pierre L Triozzi; Ralph J Tuthill; Ernest Borden
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunotherapy     Volume:  3     ISSN:  1750-7448     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunotherapy     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-05-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101485158     Medline TA:  Immunotherapy     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  653-71     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Melanoma Program, The Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
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