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Rapid Development of Infusion-Related Severe Hypotension During Rituximab Therapy (May).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21505107     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE: To report an incident of rapid development of profound hypotension, differing from the time described in previous reports, during the infusion of rituximab chemotherapy in a patient without prior exposure to the drug. CASE SUMMARY: An 84-year-old white male with Rai stage IV chronic lymphocytic leukemia was prescribed rituximab 375 mg/m(2) by intravenous infusion. Rituximab 50 mg/h was initiated after premedication with acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, dexamethasone, and ondansetron 3 days into his hospital course. Five minutes after the infusion had begun, he experienced a significant decrease in blood pressure to 76/45 mm Hg, and the infusion was stopped. After 30 minutes, the blood pressure returned to normal. Rechallenge with rituximab 25 mg/h was attempted, but the blood pressure again declined and the patient experienced chills and rigors. The infusion was discontinued, and the symptoms resolved 1 hour later. DISCUSSION: Infusion-related adverse reactions associated with rituximab are reported at a higher rate than with other monoclonal antibodies. Hypotension with rituximab has been reported to occur 30 minutes to 2 hours after initiation of the infusion. In contrast, severe hypotension in our patient occurred within 5 minutes after the infusion was started in a patient with no previous exposure to the drug. While many studies hypothesize that cytokine release from lymphocytes and tumor cell agglutination might contribute to severe infusion-related reactions with rituximab, the mechanism of action is not yet known. Use of the Naranjo probability scale indicated that the hypotension was probably associated with rituximab administration. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the rapidity of this adverse effect in patients who have not received prior treatment with monoclonal antibodies is important during chemotherapy treatment.
Authors:
Kevin H Vo; James Aubrey Waddell; Katie J Suda
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-4-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Annals of pharmacotherapy     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1542-6270     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-4-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9203131     Medline TA:  Ann Pharmacother     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Knoxville, TN.
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