Document Detail

Radiographic and endoscopic measurements of esophageal length in pediatric patients.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16190090     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of the length between the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in pediatric patients is essential for intraluminal impedance and dual pH probe recordings. METHODS: We measured the vertical distance between the true vocal cords (TVCs) and the LES in chest x-rays (CXRs) of 118 children (ages, 6 weeks to 13 years) and measured the vertical distance between the UES and the LES during endoscopy in 31 patients (ages, 14 months to 17 years) and correlated the measurements to height, weight, and age. RESULTS: Esophageal length correlated best with patient height (R = 0.96 by CXR, R = 0.88 by endoscopy) and less well with weight (R = 0.87, R = 0.67) and age (R = 0.94, R = 0.86). Linear regression analyses using radiographic measurements revealed that esophageal length (TVC to LES) can be estimated from a patient's height by the following equation: 1.048 + 0.167 x height (in centimeters). With the upper pH probe placed in the hypopharynx at the TVC level and the inferior probe placed in the esophagus 3 to 6 cm above the LES, the patients were divided into 6 groups corresponding to the currently available number of sizes of dual pH-impedance probes. With the patients' heights between 71.5 and 161.3 cm, 64.7% to 100% of patients were within 1 cm of the desired location with preselected probes. Confirmation of placement was performed with CXR. CONCLUSIONS: A pediatric patient's height can be used to estimate the esophageal length (TVC to LES) and facilitate the selection of dual pH-impedance probes. Our method decreases the risk of morbidity while increasing the accuracy of the study of extraesophageal reflux disease.
Grace S Yang; Warren P Bishop; Brian J Smith; Steven L Goudy; Yutaka Sato; Nancy M Bauman
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology     Volume:  114     ISSN:  0003-4894     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.     Publication Date:  2005 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-09-29     Completed Date:  2005-10-20     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0407300     Medline TA:  Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  587-92     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Body Height
Body Weight
Child, Preschool
Electric Impedance
Endoscopy, Digestive System*
Esophageal Sphincter, Lower / pathology,  radiography
Esophagus / pathology*,  radiography*
Gastroesophageal Reflux / diagnosis
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Linear Models
Otolaryngology / methods
Radiography, Thoracic*
Vocal Cords / pathology,  radiography

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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