Document Detail

Radiation exposure to the hands from mini C-arm fluoroscopy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16039374     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: To quantify the level of radiation exposure to the hands of hand surgeons using intraoperative mini C-arm fluoroscopy and to compare the actual level of exposure with predicted levels and acceptable limits. METHODS: Five hand surgeons were given ring dosimeters to measure radiation exposure to their hands during surgery of the finger, hand, and wrist. A total of 81 rings were analyzed. After the clinical study a phantom was used to measure scatter at close range from the mini C-arm. RESULTS: Surgeons' hands were exposed to an average +/- SD of 20 +/- 12.3 mrem/case. For comparison a chest x-ray results in approximately 20 mrem exposure to the patient. Radiation exposure for the group of hand surgeons ranged from 5 to 80 mrem. Surgeons used an average of 51 +/- 36.9 seconds of fluoroscopy time per case. Exposure time for the group ranged from 6 to 170 seconds. The radiation scatter rate decreases precipitously outside the beam or beyond the radius of the intensifier. An average exposure to the hands of 20 mrem/case suggests that surgeons' hands must be entering the beam and getting direct exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Hand surgeons work close to the beam and as a result their hands potentially are exposed to a nontrivial amount of radiation. We recommend that surgeons who use the mini C-arm use precautions to minimize radiation exposure, particularly to their hands.
Gordon Singer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of hand surgery     Volume:  30     ISSN:  0363-5023     ISO Abbreviation:  J Hand Surg Am     Publication Date:  2005 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-07-25     Completed Date:  2005-12-01     Revised Date:  2009-06-08    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7609631     Medline TA:  J Hand Surg Am     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  795-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Orthopedics, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, CO 80205, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Fluoroscopy / adverse effects*
Hand / radiation effects*
Intraoperative Period
Occupational Exposure*
Phantoms, Imaging
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Injuries / etiology,  prevention & control
Radiation Monitoring / methods
Radiation Protection
Risk Factors

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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