Document Detail

Radiation Carcinogenesis Risk Assessments for Never-smokers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23032894     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking, which is presently associated with more than 20% of adult deaths in the United States, is a large confounder to radiation risk estimates derived from epidemiology data. Astronauts and other exposed groups are classified as never-smokers (NS), defined as lifetime use of less than 100 cigarettes. In the past, radiation risk estimates have been made using average U.S. population rates for cancer and all causes of death, which may lead to overestimation of radiation risks for NS. In this report, age- and gender-specific radiation carcinogenesis risk calculations for NS and the average U.S. population are compared. Lung is the major tissue site for smoking and radiation-related cancer. However, other radiogenic cancers where tobacco has been shown to increase population cancer rates are esophagus, oral cavity, salivary gland, bladder, stomach, liver, colorectal, and leukemia. After adjusting U.S. cancer rates to remove smoking effects, radiation risks for lung and other cancers were estimated using the multiplicative risk model and a mixture model, with weighted contributions for additive and multiplicative risk transfer. Radiation mortality risks for NS were reduced compared to the average U.S. population by more than 20% and 50% in the mixture model and multiplicative transfer models, respectively. The authors discuss possible mechanisms of cancer risks from radiation and tobacco that suggest multiplicative effects could occur. These results suggest that improved understanding of possible synergisms between cancer initiators and promoters, such as radiation and tobacco, would greatly improve risk estimates and reduce uncertainties for differentially exposed groups, including NS.
Francis A Cucinotta; Lori J Chappell; Myung-Hee Y Kim; Minli Wang
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Health physics     Volume:  103     ISSN:  1538-5159     ISO Abbreviation:  Health Phys     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-03     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985093R     Medline TA:  Health Phys     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  643-51     Citation Subset:  IM    
*NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058; †USRA Division of Life Sciences, Houston, TX 77058.
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