Document Detail

Quantification of the emetic toxin cereulide in food products by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using synthetic cereulide as a standard.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20889798     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Bacillus cereus produces the emetic toxin cereulide, a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide that can act as a K(+) ionophore, dissipating the transmembrane potential in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Because pure cereulide has not been commercially available, cereulide content in food samples has been expressed in valinomycin equivalents, a highly similar cyclic potassium ionophore that is commercially available. This research tested the biological activity of synthetic cereulide and validated its use as a standard in the quantification of cereulide contents in food samples. The synthesis route consists of 10 steps that result in a high yield of synthetic cereulide that showed biological activity in the HEp-2 cell assay and the boar sperm motility assay. The activity is different in both methods, which may be attributed to differences in K(+) content of the test media used. Using cereulide or valinomycin as a standard to quantify cereulide based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the concentration determined with cereulide as a standard was on average 89.9% of the concentration determined using valinomycin as a standard. The recovery experiments using cereulide-spiked food products and acetonitrile as extraction solute showed that the LC-MS method with cereulide as a standard is a reliable and accurate method to quantify cereulide in food, because the recovery rate was close to 100% over a wide concentration range.
Elisabeth G Biesta-Peters; Martine W Reij; Richard H Blaauw; Paul H In 't Veld; Andreja Rajkovic; Monika Ehling-Schulz; Tjakko Abee
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-10-01
Journal Detail:
Title:  Applied and environmental microbiology     Volume:  76     ISSN:  1098-5336     ISO Abbreviation:  Appl. Environ. Microbiol.     Publication Date:  2010 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-08     Completed Date:  2011-02-22     Revised Date:  2013-07-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7605801     Medline TA:  Appl Environ Microbiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  7466-72     Citation Subset:  IM    
Wageningen University and Research Centre, Laboratory of Food Microbiology, EV Wageningen, Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Cell Line
Cell Survival / drug effects
Chromatography, Liquid / methods*,  standards
Depsipeptides / analysis*,  chemical synthesis,  toxicity
Emetics / analysis*,  chemical synthesis,  toxicity
Food Analysis / methods*
Hepatocytes / drug effects
Locomotion / drug effects
Mass Spectrometry / methods*,  standards
Reference Standards
Spermatozoa / drug effects
Sus scrofa
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Depsipeptides; 0/Emetics; 0/cereulide

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