Document Detail

Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study* (United States).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17006725     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between the intake of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and antioxidants, and the risk of prostate cancer in male participants in a large multiethnic cohort study. METHODS: Food and nutrient intakes in 1993-1996 were calculated from a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to account for the food and nutrient intake of the ethnic groups represented in the study (82,486 African-American, Japanese-American, Native-Hawaiian, Latino and White males included here). Follow-up for incident cancers utilized local SEER registries. Vital status was ascertained using state death files. Data on PSA utilization from a later questionnaire was also examined. RESULTS: A total of 3,922 incident cancer cases were ascertained during follow-up. Modestly increased risks of prostate cancer were observed in relation to higher intakes of several food items including light green lettuce and dark leafy green vegetables. Notably, no significant protective associations of any foods were seen, including tomato intake; and intakes of two complex foods containing tomato sauce (pizza and Spanish rice) were associated with modest increases in risk. PSA test use was significantly and positively related to intake of some of these same items, implying a degree of disease detection-bias. Analysis of non-localized and high grade disease (1,345 cases) showed no significant protective associations with overall fruits and vegetables intake, related micronutrients, or with intake of selected complex food items. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant evidence of a protective effect against prostate cancer of higher levels of intake of any of these foods, associated micronutrients or supplements. A possible explanation for the positive associations with risk of several of the foods normally considered to be healthy is detection bias, since "healthy" dietary intake was related to greater use of the PSA test.
Daniel O Stram; Jean H Hankin; Lynne R Wilkens; Sohee Park; Brian E Henderson; Abraham M Y Nomura; Malcolm C Pike; Laurence N Kolonel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Cancer causes & control : CCC     Volume:  17     ISSN:  0957-5243     ISO Abbreviation:  Cancer Causes Control     Publication Date:  2006 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-09-28     Completed Date:  2007-02-02     Revised Date:  2007-12-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9100846     Medline TA:  Cancer Causes Control     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1193-207     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Preventive Medicine, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
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MeSH Terms
African Americans
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Analysis of Variance
Asian Americans
California / ethnology
Cohort Studies
European Continental Ancestry Group
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Hawaii / ethnology
Hispanic Americans
Micronutrients* / administration & dosage,  analysis
Middle Aged
Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology,  ethnology*,  immunology
Regression Analysis
Risk Factors
SEER Program
Tumor Markers, Biological / blood
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Micronutrients; 0/Tumor Markers, Biological; EC Antigen

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