Document Detail

The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L.
Jump to Full Text
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23251075     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.
Norlaily Mohd Ali; Swee Keong Yeap; Wan Yong Ho; Boon Kee Beh; Sheau Wei Tan; Soon Guan Tan
Related Documents :
21106885 - As pleasure unfolds. hedonic responses to tempting food.
18952505 - Determination of complex polysaccharides by hpae-pad in foods: validation using accurac...
21535725 - Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.
3456795 - Overjet and overbite distribution and correlation: a comparative epidemiological englis...
6882885 - Effect of food and an antacid on quinidine bioavailability.
24464075 - Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2012-11-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology     Volume:  2012     ISSN:  1110-7251     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Biomed. Biotechnol.     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-19     Completed Date:  2013-04-11     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101135740     Medline TA:  J Biomed Biotechnol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  171956     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43300 Selangor, Malaysia.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Clinical Trials as Topic
Marketing / economics
Plant Oils / chemistry
Salvia / chemistry,  metabolism*
Seeds / chemistry
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Plant Oils

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): J Biomed Biotechnol
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): J. Biomed. Biotechnol
Journal ID (publisher-id): JBB
ISSN: 1110-7243
ISSN: 1110-7251
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Article Information
Download PDF
Copyright © 2012 Norlaily Mohd Ali et al.
Received Day: 9 Month: 8 Year: 2012
Revision Received Day: 30 Month: 10 Year: 2012
Accepted Day: 31 Month: 10 Year: 2012
Print publication date: Year: 2012
Electronic publication date: Day: 21 Month: 11 Year: 2012
Volume: 2012E-location ID: 171956
PubMed Id: 23251075
ID: 3518271
DOI: 10.1155/2012/171956

The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.
Norlaily Mohd Ali1
Swee Keong Yeap2
Wan Yong Ho1
Boon Kee Beh3
Sheau Wei Tan2*
Soon Guan Tan1
1Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43300 Selangor, Malaysia
2Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43300 Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43300 Selangor, Malaysia
Correspondence: *Sheau Wei Tan:
[other] Academic Editor: Kazim Husain

1. Introduction

Salvia hispanica L. (Figure 1), a biannually cultivated plant, is categorized under the mint family (Labiatae), superdivision of Spermatophyta, and kingdom of Plantae. Prominently grown for its seeds, Salvia hispanica also produces white or purple flowers. The seed (Figure 2) contains from 25% to 40% oil with 60% of it comprising (omega) ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid and 20% of (omega) ω-6 linoleic acid. Both essential fatty acids are required by the human body for good health, and they cannot be artificially synthesized. Chia can grow up to 1 m tall and has opposite arranged leaves. Chia flowers are small flower (3-4 mm) with small corollas and fused flower parts that contribute to a high self-pollination rate. The seed color varies from black, grey, and black spotted to white, and the shape is oval with size ranging from 1 to 2 mm [14]. Wild and domesticated chia differs little. Currently, only Salvia hispanica but not other species of the genus Salvia can be grown domestically. To prevent the misidentification of Salvia hispanica and other species of Salvia, clear understanding of the morphological and genotypical differences among them had been proposed as solutions [4, 5]. Locally known for its medicinal uses, Salvia hispanica L. acquired the common name chia from the indigenous South American people of the pre-Columbian and Aztec eras [6]. Owing to the fact that it can grow in arid environments, it has been highly recommended as an alternative crop for the field crop industry [7].

Chia seed is composed of protein (15–25%), fats (30–33%), carbohydrates (26–41%), high dietary fiber (18–30%), ash (4-5%), minerals, vitamins, and dry matter (90–93%). It also contains a high amount of antioxidants [8]. Heavy metal analysis showed that chia seed contains them at safe levels, not exceeding the maximum metal levels for food safety, and the seed is also free from mycotoxins [1]. Another key feature of chia seed is that it does not contain gluten [9]. Recent studies on chia seeds have focused on phytochemicals and their extractions from the seed. Only very little studies have focused on in vivo or clinical bioactivities and the safety aspects of chia seed. The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate the health benefits, phytochemical contents, methods of oil extraction, and the current market potential of chia seed as a health food supplement.

2. Phytochemicals in Chia Seed

Various active ingredients including essential fatty acids and phenolic compounds have been identified in chia seed. These active compounds which contribute to the health benefits of chia seeds are summarised in Table 1.

There are many factors that may cause variations in the concentrations of the active compounds in chia seed. One of them is the cultivation area of the plant itself. Differences in the environment, climate changes, availabilities of nutrient, year of cultivation, or soil conditions play crucial roles to the variations [17, 22]. For example, the protein content tends to decrease as the temperature increased [23]. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between altitude and the content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) had been observed whereby, at low elevation, an increase in fatty acid saturation was noted in areas where the temperature was high [7, 24]. In Argentina, Ayerza [25] demonstrated that temperature largely contributed to the type of fatty acid found in the oil. They found that, during seed development from April to May, an increase in the temperature of the environment brought about a decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content.

Another factor that may contribute to differences in the chemical compositions of chia seed is the developmental stage of the plant. It was shown that the (α-linolenic acid) ALA content decreased by 23% from the early stage to the matured stage of the seed. This concurrently resulted in the increase of linolenic acid (LA) and lignin content [7].

3. Health Benefits of Chia Seed-Animal Studies

Several crops have been commercially recognized as being good sources of oil for dietary use including flaxseed, rapeseed, sunflower seed, soybean seed, maize, evening primrose, and chia seed. A comparative study using flaxseed, rapeseed, and chia seed as chicken feed had been conducted. Eggs from hens fed with chia had the highest ω-3 ALA content as compared to hens fed with flaxseed or rapeseed [26]. Due to the easier availability and lower price of flaxseed over chia, an attempt to replace chia with flaxseed in laying hen's feed was carried out. The incorporation of flaxseed in the diet resulted in a slight decrease of the ω-3 ALA content of egg yolk [27]. However, the high antinutritional content of flaxseed affected the poultry meat quality.

Besides the utilization of chia in poultry animal targeted for human consumption, it had also been used for animal nutrition by itself. Other than chia seed oil, studies had been done using other grain oil such as flaxseed in broiler feed which also resulted in an increase of fatty acid quality level in broiler's meat [16].

Ayerza and Coates [28] and Fernandez et al. [29] conducted studies concerning the effects of chia seed feeding on rat plasma. Their findings indicated that serum triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly decreased whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and ω-3 PUFA levels were increased. They also noted that no adverse effects were observed on the rat's thymus and IgE serum level. Furthermore, chia seed feeding was tested in pigs and rabbits, which resulted in an increase of PUFA in meat fats as well as aroma and flavor [3032]. These are desirable characteristics of human food. In summary, the incorporation of chia seed into animal feed results in an increase of ALA and a decrease of cholesterol levels in meat and eggs. Hence, it is a good substitute source of PUFA to fish and other seed oils. Moreover, atypical organoleptic characteristics such as flavor and smell from marine sources were not found in chia [33]. This showed the superiority of chia seed against other nutritional sources.

4. Health Benefits of Chia Seed-Human Clinical Trials

Correlation between high SFA and low PUFA intake with diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were widely reported [20, 34]. Besides, the additive effect of ALA and n-3 long chain PUFA was observed to exhibit cardioprotective effects in women [35], which led to consequent human clinical studies of chia on disease risk factors. To date, four clinical trials have been carried out, and the details are summarised in Table 2. Among these trials, only that of Nieman et al. [19] showed no health benefits from chia seed. This difference could be due to the treatment durations employed and also the actual biochemical components of the dietary chia seed used in the various studies. Nevertheless, later studies [18, 20, 21] demonstrated well the benefits of chia on human health. However, studies of chia's intake in human diet which take into consideration factors such as lifestyle and genetic variations are still limited. Hence, studies which target these factors should be done in the future.

5. Extraction of Chia Seed Oil

Chia seed is mainly valued for its oil. Thus, many oil extraction methods had been utilized. Differences in the extraction methods caused variations in the oil yield, quality of fatty acids, fatty acid contents, total dietary fibers, and also antioxidant content. Table 3 summarises the current methods used in the extraction of chia seed oil.

6. Market Potential and Commercial Application of Chia Seed

Functional foods have gained tremendous attention worldwide over the past few years due to the wave of healthy lifestyle changes. One of the reasons for the interest to shift to a healthier lifestyle is the increasing number of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, and other related diseases. These conditions are commonly due to inactive lifestyle and poor diet where the food consumed daily contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFAs). There are numerous studies which reported on the correlation between high SFA, particularly palmitic acid, and low PUFA intakes with CVD [34]. Traditionally, the now so-called functional foods have been consumed based on their availabilities as daily staple foods. At present, many studies have been done to increase their functionality as high nutrient food supplements. The benefits of functional foods primarily come from the presence of active ingredients and bioactivities of compounds originally present in the plant being still present in the food products after they have been processed to make them suitable for human consumption.

Recently, chia has regained its popularity by becoming one of the main oil sources that contains high levels of PUFA. Chia, which used to be the major food crop of the indigenous peoples of Mexico and Guatemala, is now widely cultivated and commercialized for its (omega) ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content and antioxidant properties. Today, its cultivation is not only limited to the Americas but is also extended to other areas such as Australia and Southeast Asia [6].

At present, chia seed is used as a healthy oil supplement for humans and animals. Table 4 presented a summary of the current commercial usages of chia seed. Human consumption of chia in diet is mainly from the extracted oil through its incorporation into cooking oil, confections, or supplements. In 2000, the US Dietary Guidelines recommend that chia seed can be used as a primary food not exceeding 48 g/day. Chia is commonly consumed as salad from chia sprout, in beverages, cereals, and salad dressing from the seed, or it is eaten raw [41, 42]. The European Commission approved the use of chia seed in bread products with a limit of not more than 5%. Other than bread, the food industry of various countries around the world including US, Canada, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, and Mexico has widely used chia seeds or its oil for different applications such as breakfast cereals, bars, cookie snacks, fruit juices, cake, and yoghurt [43, 44].

Despite of its well-known antioxidant activities and healthy fatty acid profile, consumers are not very aware of chia's benefits until recently. Chia seed production is a major contributor to the Argentine economy being responsible for 24% of its agricultural industry. In 2008, Argentina contributed approximately 4% of the world grain production [52]. Although chia seed has been commercialized for a long time in Argentina, however, due to the comparatively small-scale production there, problems in its availability and sustainability as an edible oil source in the global market exist. The current planting and production of chia seed oil are yet to fully meet the world market demand [17, 53, 54].

7. Summary

Based on the current research findings, chia seed is a good choice of healthy oil to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. However, unlike vitamin E and coenzyme Q10, in vivo clinical bioactivity and safety evaluation of chia seeds are still limited. Furthermore, details on the mechanisms of chia seed's hypolipidemic effects need to be studied and compared with those of the isolated omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids.

1. Bresson JL,Flynn A,Heinonen M,et al. Opinion on the safety of “Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and ground whole Chia seeds” as a food ingredientThe European Food Safety Authority JournalYear: 2009996126
2. Peiretti PG,Meineri G. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplementsMeat ScienceYear: 2008804111611212-s2.0-5204908966622063845
3. Reyes-Caudillo E,Tecante A,Valdivia-López MA. Dietary fibre content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seedsFood ChemistryYear: 200810726566632-s2.0-36148941335
4. Cahill JP,Provance MC. Genetics of qualitative traits in domesticated chia (Salvia hispanica L.)Journal of HeredityYear: 200293152552-s2.0-003624715412011177
5. Reales A,Rivera D,Palazón JA,Obón C. Numerical taxonomy study of Salvia sect. Salvia (Labiatae)Botanical Journal of the Linnean SocietyYear: 200414533533712-s2.0-3242781842
6. Jamboonsri W,Phillips TD,Geneve RL,Cahill JP,Hildebrand DF. Extending the range of an ancient crop, Salvia hispanica L.—a new ω3 sourceGenetic Resources and Crop EvolutionYear: 20125921711782-s2.0-79952795679
7. Peiretti PG,Gai F. Fatty acid and nutritive quality of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds and plant during growthAnimal Feed Science and TechnologyYear: 20091482–42672752-s2.0-58049193715
8. Ixtaina VY,Nolasco SM,Tomás MC. Physical properties of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seedsIndustrial Crops and ProductsYear: 20082832862932-s2.0-49849101798
9. Bueno M,di Sapio O,Barolo M,Busilacchi H,Quiroga M,Severin C. Quality tests of Salvia hispanica L. (Lamiaceae) fruits marketed in the city of Rosario (Santa Fe province, Argentina)Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y AromáticasYear: 2010932212272-s2.0-77953863340
10. di Sapio O,Bueno M,Busilacchi H,Quiroga M,Severin C. Morphoanatomical characterization of Salvia hispanica L. (LAMIACEAE) leaf, stem, fruit and seedBoletín Latinoamericano Y Del Caribe De Plantas Medicinales Y AromáticasYear: 20121132492268
11. Heuer B,Yaniv Z,Ravina I. Effect of late salinization of chia (Salvia hispanica), stock (Matthiola tricuspidata) and evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) on their oil content and qualityIndustrial Crops and ProductsYear: 20021521631672-s2.0-0036178255
12. Jeong SK,Park HJ,Park BD,Kim IH. Effectiveness of topical chia seed oil on pruritus of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and healthy volunteersAnnals of DermatologyYear: 20102221431482-s2.0-7795473971920548903
13. Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseasesJournal of the American College of NutritionYear: 20022164955052-s2.0-003693147712480795
14. Poudyal H,Panchal SK,Waanders J,Ward L,Brown L. Lipid redistribution by α-linolenic acid-rich chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces cardiac and hepatic protection in diet-induced obese ratsJournal of Nutritional BiochemistryYear: 20122321531622-s2.0-7995270148321429727
15. Simopoulos AP. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular diseaseAsia Pacific Journal of Clinical NutritionYear: 20081711311342-s2.0-4604908720118296320
16. Betti M,Perez TI,Zuidhof MJ,Renema RA. Omega-3-enriched broiler meat: 3. Fatty acid distribution between triacylglycerol and phospholipid classesPoultry ScienceYear: 2009888174017542-s2.0-68849096448
17. Dubois V,Breton S,Linder M,Fanni J,Parmentier M. Fatty acid profiles of 80 vegetable oils with regard to their nutritional potentialEuropean Journal of Lipid Science and TechnologyYear: 200710977107322-s2.0-34547588614
18. Jin F,Nieman DC,Sha W,et al. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal womenPlant Foods For Human NutritionYear: 20106710511022538527
19. Nieman DC,Cayea EJ,Austin MD,Henson DA,McAnulty SR,Jin F. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adultsNutrition ResearchYear: 20092964144182-s2.0-6765055939919628108
20. Martha GC,Armando RT,Carlos AA,et al. A dietary pattern including Nopal, Chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndromeJournal of NutritionYear: 20121421646922090467
21. Vuksan V,Jenkins AL,Dias AG,et al. Reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety: possible explanation of the long-term effects of whole grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.)European Journal of Clinical NutritionYear: 20106444364382-s2.0-7795062716320087375
22. Ayerza R,Coates W. Influence of environment on growing period and yield, protein, oil and α-linolenic content of three chia (Salvia hispanica L.) selectionsIndustrial Crops and ProductsYear: 20093023213242-s2.0-67651095810
23. Ayerza h R,Coates W. Protein content, oil content and fatty acid profiles as potential criteria to determine the origin of commercially grown chia (Salvia hispanica L.)Industrial Crops and ProductsYear: 2011342136613712-s2.0-79960341252
24. Ayerza R. Effects of seed color and growing locations on fatty acid content and composition of two chia (Salvia hispanica L.) genotypesJournal of the American Oil Chemists’ SocietyYear: 20108710116111652-s2.0-78649940892
25. Ayerza (h) R. R. Oil content and fatty acid composition of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) from five northwestern locations in ArgentinaJournal of the American Oil Chemists’ SocietyYear: 1995729107910812-s2.0-51249168733
26. Antruejo A,Azcona JO,Garcia PT,et al. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of a-linolenic x-3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid compositionBritish Poultry ScienceYear: 2011526750760
27. Ayerza R,Coates W. Omega-3 enriched eggs: the influence of dietary α-linolenic fatty acid source on egg production and compositionCanadian Journal of Animal ScienceYear: 20008133553622-s2.0-0035624145
28. Ayerza R,Coates W. Effect of dietary α-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasmaAnnals of Nutrition and MetabolismYear: 200751127342-s2.0-3424736321117356263
29. Fernandez I,Vidueiros SM,Ayerza R,Coates W,Pallaro A. Impact of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) on the immune system: preliminary studyProceedings of the Nutrition SocietyYear: 200867, article E122-s2.0-47249142842
30. Coates W,Ayerza R. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristicsJournal of Animal ScienceYear: 20098711379838042-s2.0-7035027461719648503
31. Masoero G,Sala G,Meineri G,Cornale P,Tassone S,Peiretti PG. Nir spectroscopy and electronic nose evaluation on live rabbits and on the meat of rabbits fed increasing levels of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seedsJournal of Animal and Veterinary AdvancesYear: 2008711139413992-s2.0-56349096888
32. Dalle Zotte A,Szendro Z. The role of rabbit meat as functional foodMeat ScienceYear: 20118833193312-s2.0-7995281929721392894
33. Ayerza R. Chia as a new source of ω-3 fatty acids: advantage over other raw materials to produce ω-3 enriched eggsProceedings of the Symposium on Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Evolution and Human HealthSeptember 2002Washington, DC, USA
34. Ayerza R,Coates W,Lauria M. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an ω-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristicsPoultry ScienceYear: 20028168268372-s2.0-0036614979
35. Vedtofte MS,Jakobsen MU,Lauritzen L,et al. Dietary alpha linoleic acid, linoleic acid and n-3 long-chain PUFA and risk of ischemic heart diseaseThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.Year: 2011941097110321865326
36. Ixtaina VY,Nolasco SM,Tomàs MC. Oxidative Stability of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil: effect of Antioxidants and Storage ConditionsJournal of the American Oil Chemists' SocietyYear: 20128910771090
37. Capitani MI,Spotorno V,Nolasco SM,Tomás MC. Physicochemical and functional characterization of by-products from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds of ArgentinaLWT—Food Science and TechnologyYear: 2012451941022-s2.0-79961133605
38. Ixtaina VY,Mattea F,Cardarelli DA,Mattea MA,Nolasco SM,Tomás MC. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and characterization of Argentinean chia seed oilJournal of the American Oil Chemists’ SocietyYear: 20118822892982-s2.0-79951932190
39. Uribe JAR,Perez JIN,Kauil HC,Rubio GR,Alcocer CG. Extraction of oil from chia seeds with supercritical CO2Journal of Supercritical FluidsYear: 20115621741782-s2.0-79951946913
40. Ixtaina VY,Vega A,Nolasco SM,et al. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil from Mexican chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.): characterization and process optimizationJournal of Supercritical FluidsYear: 20105511921992-s2.0-78049281829
41. Rendón-Villalobos R,Ortiz-Sanchez A,Solorza-Feria J,Trujillo-Hernandez CA. Formulation, physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial evaluation of corn tortillas supplemented with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.)Czech Journal of Food SciencesYear: 2012302118125
42. Baughman WF,Jamieson GS. Chia seed oilOil & Fat IndustriesYear: 19296915172-s2.0-51649198808
43. The Chia CompanyRequest for scientific evaluation of substantial equivalence application for the approval of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanicaL.) from the Chia Company for use in bread Food Law Consultants, 2010,
44. Borneo R,Aguirre A,León AE. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulationsJournal of the American Dietetic AssociationYear: 201011069469492-s2.0-7795305122920497788
45. Ayerza R,Coates W. An ω-3 fatty acid enriched chia diet: influence on egg fatty acid composition, cholesterol and oil contentCanadian Journal of Animal ScienceYear: 199979153582-s2.0-0033244453
46. Ayerza R,Coates W. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hensPoultry ScienceYear: 20007957247392-s2.0-0034186495
47. Ayerza R,Coates W. Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hensBritish Poultry ScienceYear: 20024322832902-s2.0-0036561405
48. Meineri G,Peiretti PG. Apparent digestibility of mixed feed with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds in rabbit dietsItalian Journal of Animal ScienceYear: 2007617787802-s2.0-34250904192
49. Meineri G,Cornale P,Tassone S,Peiretti PG. Effects of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplementation on rabbit meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traitsItalian Journal of Animal ScienceYear: 20099104549
50. Olivos-Lugo BL,Valdivia-López MÁ,Tecante A. Thermal and physicochemical properties and nutritional value of the protein fraction of mexican chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.)Food Science and Technology InternationalYear: 201016189962-s2.0-7795352050921339125
51. Illian TG,Casey JC,Bishop PA. Omega 3 chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loadingJournal of Strength and Conditioning ResearchYear: 201125161652-s2.0-7995384296921183832
52. Lema D. Growth and productivity in Argentine agricultureConference on Causes and Consequences of Global Agricultural Productivity GrowthMay 2010Washington, DC, USA
53. Ayerza R,Coates W. Seed yield, oil content and fatty acid composition of three botanical sources of ω-3 fatty acid planted in the Yungas ecosystem of tropical ArgentinaTropical ScienceYear: 20074741831872-s2.0-60249087677
54. Coates W,Ayerza R. Production potential of chia in northwestern ArgentinaIndustrial Crops and ProductsYear: 1996532292332-s2.0-0030222678

Article Categories:
  • Review Article

Previous Document:  Progress towards elimination of HIV mother-to-child transmission in the Dominican Republic from 1999...
Next Document:  NK cells in healthy aging and age-associated diseases.