Document Detail

Prokaryotic phototaxis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19763957     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Microorganisms have various mechanisms at their disposal to react to (changes in) their ambient light climate (i.e., intensity, color, direction, and degree of polarization). Of these, one of the best studied mechanisms is the process of phototaxis. This process can be described as a behavioral migration-response of an organism toward a change in illumination regime. In this chapter we discuss three of these migration responses, based on swimming, swarming, and twitching motility, respectively. Swimming motility has been studied using a wide range of techniques, usually microscopy based. We present a detailed description of the assays used to study phototaxis in liquid cultures of the phototrophic organisms Halobacterium salinarum, Halorhodospira halophila, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides and briefly describe the molecular basis of these responses. Swarming and twitching motility are processes taking place at the interface between a solid phase and a liquid or gas phase. Although assays to study these processes are relatively straightforward, they are accompanied by technical complications, which we describe. Furthermore, we discuss the molecular processes underlying these forms of motility in Rhodocista centenaria and Synechocystis PCC6803. Recently, it has become clear that also chemotrophic organisms contain photoreceptor proteins that allow them to respond to their ambient light climate. Surprisingly, light-modulated motility responses can also be observed in the chemotrophic organisms Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. In the light-modulated surface migration not only "che-like" signal transduction reactions may play a role, but in addition processes as modulation of gene expression and even intermediary metabolism.
Wouter D Hoff; Michael A van der Horst; Clara B Nudel; Klaas J Hellingwerf
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)     Volume:  571     ISSN:  1940-6029     ISO Abbreviation:  Methods Mol. Biol.     Publication Date:  2009  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-09-18     Completed Date:  2010-01-13     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9214969     Medline TA:  Methods Mol Biol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  25-49     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Acinetobacter / metabolism,  physiology,  radiation effects
Bacterial Proteins / metabolism,  physiology
Escherichia coli Proteins / metabolism,  physiology,  radiation effects
Halobacterium salinarum / metabolism,  physiology,  radiation effects
Halorhodospira halophila / metabolism,  physiology,  radiation effects
Locomotion / physiology*,  radiation effects*
Models, Biological
Phytochrome / metabolism,  physiology
Rhodobacter sphaeroides / metabolism,  physiology,  radiation effects
Synechocystis / metabolism,  physiology,  radiation effects
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Bacterial Proteins; 0/Escherichia coli Proteins; 11121-56-5/Phytochrome

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