Document Detail

Prognostic value of galectin-3, a novel marker of fibrosis, in patients with chronic heart failure: data from the DEAL-HF study.
Jump to Full Text
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20130888     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIMS: Biomarkers are increasingly being used in the management of patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Galectin-3 is a recently developed biomarker associated with fibrosis and inflammation, and it may play a role in cardiac remodeling in HF. We determined its prognostic value in patients with chronic HF.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with chronic HF (New York Heart Association functional class III or IV) who participated in the Deventer-Alkmaar heart failure study were studied. Galectin-3 levels were determined at baseline using a novel optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the prognostic value of this biomarker. We studied 232 patients; their mean age was 71 +/- 10 years, 72% were male, and 96% were in NYHA class III. During a follow-up period of 6.5 years, 98 patients died. Galectin-3 was a significant predictor of mortality risk after adjustment for age and sex, and severity of HF and renal dysfunction, as assessed by NT-proBNP and estimated glomerular filtration rate, respectively (hazard ratio per standard deviation 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50, P = 0.026).
CONCLUSION: Plasma galectin-3 is a novel prognostic marker in patients with chronic HF. Its prognostic value is independent of severity of HF, as assessed by NT-proBNP levels, and it may potentially be used in the management of such patients.
Dirk J A Lok; Peter Van Der Meer; Pieta W Bruggink-André de la Porte; Erik Lipsic; Jan Van Wijngaarden; Hans L Hillege; Dirk J van Veldhuisen
Related Documents :
15861258 - Long-term outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with severe congesti...
18651398 - Microalbuminuria in systolic and diastolic chronic heart failure patients.
470098 - Effect of allopurinol (zyloric) on patients undergoing open heart surgery.
7987868 - Patient characteristics in cases of chronic severe heart failure with different degrees...
22219058 - Electronystagmography versus videonystagmography in diagnosis of vertigo.
16768058 - Impact of hispanic ethnicity on the likelihood of developing postoperative atrial fibri...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-02-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society     Volume:  99     ISSN:  1861-0692     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin Res Cardiol     Publication Date:  2010 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-04-23     Completed Date:  2010-07-27     Revised Date:  2013-05-31    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101264123     Medline TA:  Clin Res Cardiol     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  323-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Deventer Hospital, Deventer, The Netherlands.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Biological Markers / blood
Chronic Disease
Endomyocardial Fibrosis / blood,  diagnosis*,  mortality*
Galectin 3 / blood*
Heart Failure / blood,  diagnosis*,  mortality*
Reproducibility of Results
Risk Assessment
Risk Factors
Sensitivity and Specificity
Survival Analysis
Survival Rate
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 0/Galectin 3
Comment In:
Clin Res Cardiol. 2010 Aug;99(8):527; author reply 529   [PMID:  20372914 ]
Clin Res Cardiol. 2011 Feb;100(2):183   [PMID:  20959997 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Clin Res Cardiol
ISSN: 1861-0684
ISSN: 1861-0692
Publisher: Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg
Article Information
Download PDF
? The Author(s) 2010
Received Day: 18 Month: 11 Year: 2009
Accepted Day: 20 Month: 1 Year: 2010
Electronic publication date: Day: 4 Month: 2 Year: 2010
pmc-release publication date: Day: 4 Month: 2 Year: 2010
Print publication date: Month: 5 Year: 2010
Volume: 99 Issue: 5
First Page: 323 Last Page: 328
ID: 2858799
PubMed Id: 20130888
Publisher Id: 125
DOI: 10.1007/s00392-010-0125-y

Prognostic value of galectin-3, a novel marker of fibrosis, in patients with chronic heart failure: data from the DEAL-HF study
Dirk J. A. Lok1
Peter Van Der Meer12
Pieta W. Bruggink-Andr? de la Porte1
Erik Lipsic12
Jan Van Wijngaarden1
Hans L. Hillege2
Dirk J. van Veldhuisen2 Address: +31-50-3612355 +31-50-3614391
1Deventer Hospital, Deventer, The Netherlands
2Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, PO Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands


Heart failure (HF) is a large medical and epidemiological problem, and recent studies, both in acute and chronic HF, indicate that it is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality [1?3]. Early identification of high-risk patients may favorably affect outcome and biomarkers are increasingly being recognized to have important clinical value in this respect [3]. After the initial insult to the myocardium, HF is a disease with autonomic progression associated with ventricular dysfunction and cardiac remodeling [4]. Natriuretic peptides, in particular brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its N-terminal part NT-proBNP, are increasingly being used to guide the management of HF patients [3]. Although this concept has proven to be successful, BNP and NT-proBNP values are very much influenced by many factors including age, renal function, and anemia [5]. As a result, the search for new biomarkers, which might reflect other disease processes, and which might be of additional and independent value has continued. Indeed, with the acknowledgement of remodeling as a determinant of disease progression and poor prognosis, it has become imperative to identify those patients with the highest risk of adverse outcome, thus enabling a more personalized management of HF.

Galectin-3 is a soluble ?-galactoside-binding lectin [6] that plays an important regulatory role in cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, which are key contributing mechanisms to the development and progression of HF [4]. Galectin-3 was found to be increased in patients with acutely decompensated and unstable HF [7, 8]. The involvement of galectin-3 in the development of fibrosis has been demonstrated not only in the liver [9] and in the kidney [10], but in the heart as well [11, 12]. Taken together, these observations suggest that measuring galectin-3 levels may potentially be useful in a wider range of HF patients [13] to determine their risk in general and to examine the value of this new biomarker when added to conventional risk markers. Accordingly, we studied the clinical value of galectin-3 in a population of patients with stable advanced HF, who had been very well clinically characterized, and who were enrolled in the Deventer?Alkmaar heart failure study (DEAL-HF) [14].

Study design and patient population

The original DEAL-HF study was a prospective, randomized, parallel group, controlled study conducted at two regional teaching hospitals in The Netherlands. The study design and methods have been described in detail previously [14]. Briefly, 240 patients with the NYHA functional class III or IV HF were randomized between 2000 and 2003 to a disease management program or not. The primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and hospitalization for HF and the duration of the study was 12?months. In the present study, the follow-up was extended, and only vital status (and not intermittent hospitalizations) were assessed during long-term follow-up, for obvious reasons [15]. The official day of assessment was September 15, 2006. The protocol was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committees and the study complied with the Declaration of Helsinski. Written informed consent was given by all patients.

Galectin-3 measurements

At baseline, 10?mL of blood was drawn from the antecubital vein of all patients and transferred in chilled disposable tubes containing aprotinin. The blood samples were then centrifuged at 3,500?rpm for 15?min at 4?C, the plasma was transferred into 1?mL cryotubes, and stored at ?70?C for later analyses.

Plasma galectin-3 levels were determined using a novel and optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Galectin-3 Assay?, BG Medicine, Waltham, MA, USA) and were measured on a Bio-tekELx800 microplate reader (Biotek Instruments, Winooski, VT, USA). Calibration of the assay was performed according to the manufacturer?s recommendations and values were normalized to a standard curve.

Of the 240 patient baseline plasma samples, eight samples had insufficient sample volume remaining to perform the galectin-3 measurement. As such, there are a total of 232 baseline galectin-3 measurement results.

Other biochemical measurements

NT-proBNP levels were determined by an immunoelectrochemiluminesence method (Elecsys, Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) [5].

The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as an indicator of renal function, was estimated from serum creatinine using a formula that accounts for the influence of age on creatinine production, which has been validated in patients with HF, and was described in detail elsewhere (MDRD) [16].

Statistical analyses

Galectin-3 values were categorized into quartiles based upon their distribution among all patients and a Kaplan?Meier product limit analysis was performed. The log-rank test was used to test equality of estimated survival distribution functions across quartiles of galectin-3. In addition, the association between galectin-3 level and the instantaneous relative risk of death from any cause was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and Kaplan?Meier product limit estimation. A univariate Cox proportional hazards regression model with galectin-3 as the predictor variable was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) associated with baseline galectin-3 value and death from any cause. Galectin-3 value was examined continuously [expressed per standard deviation (SD)] and categorized as a binary predictor variable based on a previously determined cut-off value of 17.7?ng/mL, which represents the recommended upper limit of normal value for galectin-3 (Personal communication, BG Medicine Inc., Waltham, MA, USA, February 2009). Evaluation of the assumption of proportional hazards was positively evaluated by inspection of log (-survival) values as a function of survival time across galectin-3 categories. The Wald chi-square P value was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the Cox regression model. Multivariable Cox regression models were also evaluated to assess the effect of galectin-3 on mortality after adjusting for NT-proBNP, age, gender, and creatinine clearance rate. In one patient NT-proBNP measurement was not available, therefore all multivariable models including NT-proBNP were conducted based upon 231 patients. Results for baseline characteristics are presented as mean???SD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. We considered sensitivity and specificity of equal importance, in ROC analyses, the best prognosticators for survival status were considered to be those parameters that gave the highest product of sensitivity and specificity for predicting death. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to determine which clinical and biochemical variable had a univariate correlation with Galectin-3. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software, version 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA).


A total of 232 baseline plasma samples from HF patients, enrolled in the DEAL-HF study, were available and included in the analysis. Baseline characteristics grouped according to the galectin-3 levels are depicted in Table?1. Overall, mean age was 71???10?years, 72% were male and 96% were in the NYHA functional class III. Co-morbidities included diabetes mellitus in 30% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 29%. The mean creatinine clearance rate was 55.0???22.8?mL/min and the median NT-proBNP level was 253?pmol/L (2,140?pg/mL). The mean follow-up time of the surviving patients was 4.0???1.9?years.

Galectin-3 values

One hundred and fourteen patients (49%) had galectin-3 plasma levels above the upper limit of normal cut-off value of 17.7?ng/mL. For all study subjects, the mean levels of galectin-3 across quartiles were 18.6???7.8?ng/mL (Table?1). Galectin-3 levels were associated with age (r?=?0.318, P?<?0.001), and younger patients had lower levels. Galectin-3 was also associated with renal dysfunction (GFR) (r?=??0.619, P?<?0.001) and higher levels were found in patients with more renal dysfunction. Galectin-3 levels were also increased in patients with higher NT-proBNP levels (r?=?0.265, P?<?0.001). Finally, a borderline, statistically significant association was found with body mass index (BMI) (r?=??0.154, P?=?0.022). There was neither a significant correlation between galectin-3 levels and left ventricular ejection fraction nor etiology of HF.

Galectin-3 levels and mortality

Overall, 98 patients died during the follow-up period. Patients who died were older (P?=?0.03) and more often male (P?=?0.04). In addition, both NT-proBNP levels (577???751 vs. 363???477?pmol/L, P?=?0.01) and galectin-3 levels (20.1???8.1 vs. 17.5???7.4?ng/mL, P?=?0.01) were significantly higher in patients who died, than in survivors.

ROC curve analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.612 [0.538?0.685], P?=?0.004 for Galectin-3. Similar results yielded for NT-proBNP: AUC of 0.611 [0.538?0.685], P?=?0.004. We found that the highest product of sensitivity and specificity was seen with gal-3 levels of 17.72?ng/mL.

Figure?1 shows the Kaplan?Meier survival curves according to quartiles of galectin-3. There was a gradual increase in all-cause mortality across the galectin-3 quartiles (log-rank P?=?0.048).

Adjustment for patient baseline age, gender, baseline eGFR and baseline NT-proBNP value minimally attenuated the association of baseline galectin-3 level with outcome, with galectin-3 remaining a significant predictor. The effects of these covariates appear in Table?2. In the fullest model that incorporates NT-proBNP, age, gender and creatinine clearance rate, the HR associated with galectin-3 per SD was HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.03?1.50, P?=?0.026).

The incremental risk of the combination of galectin-3, dichotomized into below and above normal values with NT-proBNP, dichotomized above and below the median, was also considered. Figure?2 presents the mortality within four categories of the combination of galectin-3 and NT-proBNP. Patients with high baseline levels of both galectin-3 and NT-proBNP were observed to have an approximately 1.5- to 2-fold higher mortality rate compared to patients in other categories (P?=?0.036 for trend).


The main finding of the present study is that galactin-3 is an independent predictor of mortality in this population of patients with moderate to advanced chronic HF. Although increased levels of galectin-3 were associated with increasing age, progressive renal dysfunction and severity of HF as assessed by increasing levels of NT-pro BNP, galectin-3 remained an independent prognostic marker.

The present data extend earlier findings in patients with acutely decompensated HF [8] and in those with terminal, end-stage HF who required mechanical circulatory support [9]. In the study by van Kimmenade et al. [8], galactin-3 was measured in 599 patients with acute dyspnea who presented to the emergency department, of whom 209 were diagnosed as ?acute HF?. Galectin-3 levels were higher in those with acute HF than in those who did not (9.2 vs. 6.9?ng/mL; P?<?0.001), and the ROC curve of galactin-3 for the diagnosis of HF was 0.72 (P?<?0.001) as compared to a ROC curve for NT-pro BNP of 0.94 (P?<?0.001; difference with galectin-3 P?<?0.001). For predicting 60-day mortality, ROC curves were higher for galectin-3 (0.74, P?<?0.001) than for NT-pro BNP (0.67, P?=?0.009; difference with galectin-3, P?=?0.05). In the study by Milting et al. [9], 55 patients with end-stage HF were compared to 40 healthy controls, and galectin-3 levels were higher in HF patients than in controls (11 vs. 4.1?ng/mL, P?<?0.05), but galectin-3 did not decrease after ventricular assist device support (in contrast to BNP levels). However, patients who died or in whom multi-organ failure developed, had significantly higher galectin-3 levels compared to those who successfully bridged to transplantation. In the present study, galectin-3 levels were elevated in only half of our population of patients with advanced but stable HF. As a biomarker to detect (or exclude) HF, this percentage is rather low, as compared to for example BNP in which around 90% of similar patients were found to abnormal levels [17]. In contrast to its diagnostic properties, the prognostic value of galectin-3 appears to be high. Both in the two earlier studies in acute unstable HF, as well as in the present study in relatively stable HF patients, galectin-3 was an independent predictor of outcome during follow-up and as such, it appears to be a promising new biomarker in HF [18].

Galectin-3 promotes macrophage migration, fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis, or the development of fibrosis [14]. In a recent study, the independent association between excessive extracellular matrix turnover and poor outcome in patients with HF was reported and this was particularly true for the serum collagen marker PIIINP (N-terminal type III collagen peptide) [19]. Recent work from Taiwan [20] has shown that Galectin-3 is significantly correlated with this PIIINP, but also with other (serum) markers of extracellular matrix turnover, such as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1).

Galectin-3 levels were significantly associated with the severity of renal dysfunction in this study, but retained prognostic value after correction for eGFR. This finding is interesting since increased galectin-3 is also associated with renal fibrosis [10], and the same process may thus affect both heart and kidneys. Renal dysfunction is one of the most powerful predictors of prognosis in HF and plays an important role in its pathophysiology [21] and the ?overlap? may thus also be mediated by galectin-3.

After an initial insult to the myocardium, cardiac remodeling occurs as a compensatory mechanism, and this will ultimately lead to left ventricular dysfunction and HF. This complex process with an increase of left ventricular wall thickness and dilatation and reshaping of the left ventricle leads to lengthening or hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes with insufficient angiogenesis leading to metabolic and ischemic problems [22]. Activation and proliferation of fibroblasts, which increases the synthesis of fibrillar collagen and activates the inflammatory response, plays an important role in this process [23?25]. Galectin-3 is likely to play a role in this process, and has been shown to interact with various ligands located at the extracellular matrix [26]. In a very recent study from the US, intrapericardial infusion of galectin-3 for 4?weeks in adult male rats led to (1) enhanced macrophage and mast cell infiltration, increased cardiac interstitial and perivascular fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy, (2) increased TGF-? expression, and (3) decreased cardiac performance, as for example shown by systolic and diastolic cardiac performance [27]. Given these findings, it would be tempting to speculate that blockade or inhibition of galectin-3 could have favorably affect this process and be a target for treatment, but to our knowledge, such data are not (yet) available.

The main limitation of the current study is its relatively small size. Furthermore, we measured galectin-3 on a single time point and thus can only speculate on its importance over time. Because of these limitations, we regard our study mainly as a hypothesis-generating study. Nevertheless, galectin-3 is a novel biomarker in patients with HF, which seems to have important prognostic value. Although it is generally elevated in HF, this prognostic value is independent of the severity of disease, as assessed by NT-proBNP levels.

Funding for the main DEAL-HF study has been described before in the main publication [13]. Galectin-3 measurements were done by BG Medicine Inc. (Waltham, Massachusetts, USA), but no additional funding was obtained for the present study. Drs. Lok and Van Veldhuisen have received consultancy fees from BG Medicine. The statistical analysis was conducted Prof. Hillege, of the Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

1.. McMurray JJV,Teerlink JR,Cotter G,for the VERITAS Investigatorset al. Effects of tezosentan on symptoms and clinical outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. The VERITAS randomized controlled trialsJAMAYear: 20072982009201910.1001/jama.298.17.200917986694
2.. Jaarsma T,Wal MHL,Lesman-Leegte I,for the COACH Study Groupet al. Effect of moderate or intensive disease management program on outcome in patients with heart failure. The Coordinating study evaluating Outcomes of Advising and Counseling in Heart failure (COACH)Arch Intern MedYear: 200816831632410.1001/archinternmed.2007.8318268174
3.. Dickstein K,Cohen-Solal A,Filippatos G,on behalf of the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiologyet al. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008Eur J Heart FailYear: 20081093393910.1016/j.ejheart.2008.08.00518826876
4.. Cohn JN,Ferrari R,Sharpe N,for an International Forum on Cardiac RemodelingCardiac remodeling?concepts and clinical implications: a consensus paper from an international forum on cardiac remodelingJ Am Coll CardiolYear: 20003556958210.1016/S0735-1097(99)00630-010716457
5.. Hogenhuis J,Voors AA,Jaarsma T,Hoes AW,Hillege HL,Kragten JA,Veldhuisen DJ. Anaemia and renal dysfunction are independently associated with BNP and NT-proBNP in patients with heart failureEur J Heart FailYear: 2007978779410.1016/j.ejheart.2007.04.00117532262
6.. Dumic J,Dabelic S,Fl?gel M. Galectin-3: an open-ended storyBiochim Biophys ActaYear: 2006176061663516478649
7.. Kimmenade RR,Januzzi JL Jr,Ellinor PT,et al. Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, galectin-3, and apelin for the evaluation of patients with acute heart failureJ Am Coll CardiolYear: 2006481217122410.1016/j.jacc.2006.03.06116979009
8.. Milting H,Ellinghaus P,Seewald M,et al. Plasma biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis and remodeling in terminal heart failure patients supported by mechanical circulatory support devicesJ Heart Lung TransplantYear: 20082758959610.1016/j.healun.2008.02.01818503956
9.. Henderson NC,Mackinnon AC,Farnworth SL,et al. Galectin-3 regulates myofibroblast activation and hepatic fibrosisProc Natl Acad Sci USAYear: 20061035060506510.1073/pnas.051116710316549783
10.. Henderson NC,Mackinnon AC,Farnworth SL,et al. Galectin-3 expression and secretion links macrophages to the promotion of renal fibrosisAm J PatholYear: 200817228829810.2353/ajpath.2008.07072618202187
11.. Thandavarayan RA,Watanabe K,Ma M,et al. 14-3-3 Protein regulates Ask1 signaling and protects against diabetic cardiomyopathyBiochem PharmacolYear: 2008751797180610.1016/j.bcp.2008.02.00318342293
12.. Sharma U,Rhaleb NE,Pokharel S,Harding P,Rasoul S,Peng H,Carretero OA. Novel anti-inflammatory mechanisms of N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro in hypertension-induced target organ damageAm J PhysiolYear: 2008294H1226H1232
13.. Boer RA,Voors AA,Muntendam P,Gilst WH,Veldhuisen DJ. Galectin-3: a novel mediator of heart failure development and progressionEur J Heart FailYear: 20091181181710.1093/eurjhf/hfp09719648160
14.. Bruggink-Andr? de la Porte PWF,Lok DJA,Veldhuisen DJ,et al. Added value of a physician-and-nurse-directed heart failure clinic: results from the Deventer?Alkmaar heart failure studyHeartYear: 20079381982510.1136/hrt.2006.09581017065182
15.. Smilde TD,Veldhuisen DJ,Berg MP. Prognostic value of heart rate variability and ventricular arrhythmias during 13-year follow-up in patients with mild to moderate heart failureClin Res CardiolYear: 20099823323910.1007/s00392-009-0747-019219394
16.. Smilde TD,Veldhuisen DJ,Navis G,Voors AA,Hillege HL. Drawbacks and prognostic value of formulas estimating renal function in patients with chronic heart failure and systolic dysfunctionCirculationYear: 20061141572158010.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.61064217015793
17.. Hogenhuis J,Voors AA,Jaarsma T,Hillege HL,Hoes AW,Veldhuisen DJ. Low prevalence of B-type natriuretic peptide levels <100?pg/ml in patients with heart failure at hospital dischargeAm Heart JYear: 20061511012.e1-510.1016/j.ahj.2005.12.01216644323
18.. Gupta S,Drazner MH,DeLemos JA. Newer biomarkers in heart failureHeart Fail ClinYear: 2009557958810.1016/j.hfc.2009.04.00419631181
19.. Radauceanu A,Ducki C,Virion JM,Rossignol P,Mallat Z,McMurray J,Veldhuisen DJ,Tavazzi L,Mann DL,Capiaumont-Vin J,Li M,Hanriot D,Zannad F. Extracellular matrix turnover and inflammatory markers independently predict functional status and outcome in chronic heart failureJ Card FailYear: 20081446747410.1016/j.cardfail.2008.02.01418672194
20.. Lin YH,Lin LY,Wu YW,Chien KL,Lee CM,Hsu RB,Chao CL,Wang SS,Hsein YC,Liao LC,Ho YL,Chen MF. The relationship between serum galectin-3 and serum markers of cardiac extracellular matrix turnover in heart failure patientsClin Chim ActaYear: 2009409969910.1016/j.cca.2009.09.00119747906
21.. Smilde TDJ,Damman K,Harst P,Navis G,Westenbrink BD,Voors AA,Boomsma F,Veldhuisen DJ,Hillege HL. Differential associations between renal function and ?modifiable? risk factors in patients with chronic heart failureClin Res CardiolYear: 20099812112910.1007/s00392-008-0732-z18979056
22.. Boer RA,Pinto YM,Veldhuisen DJ. The imbalance between oxygen demand and supply as a potential mechanism in the pathophysiology of heart failure: the role of microvascular growth and abnormalitiesMicrocirculationYear: 20031011312612700580
23.. Volders PG,Willems IE,Cleutjens JP,Arends JW,Havenith MG,Daemen MJ. Interstitial collagen is increased in the non-infarcted human myocardium after myocardial infarctionJ Mol Cell CardiolYear: 1993251317132310.1006/jmcc.1993.11447507999
24.. Weber KT,Pick R,Silver MA,Moe GW,Janicki JS,Zucker IH,Armstrong PW. Fibrillar collagen and remodeling of dilated canine left ventricleCirculationYear: 199082138714012401072
25.. Mann DL. Inflammatory mediators and the failing heart. Past, present, and the foreseeable futureCirc ResYear: 20029198899810.1161/01.RES.0000043825.01705.1B12456484
26.. Ochieng J,Furtak V,Lukyanov P. Extracellular functions of galectin-3Glycoconj JYear: 20041952753510.1023/B:GLYC.0000014082.99675.2f14758076
27.. Liu YH,D?Ambrosio M,Liao TD,Peng H,Rhaleb NE,Sharma U,Andre S,Gabius HJ,Carretero OA. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-prolin prevents cardiac remodelling and dysfunction induced by galectin-3, a mammalian adhesion/growth-regulatory lectinAm J Physiol Heart Circ PhysiolYear: 2009296H404H41210.1152/ajpheart.00747.200819098114


[Figure ID: Fig1]

Kaplan?Meier curves according to quartiles of baseline galectin-3 values. Log-rank P?=?0.048. Q1 galectin-3 values <13.63?ng/mL, Q2 13.63?17.63?ng/mL, Q3 17.64?21.62?ng/mL, Q4 >21.62?ng/mL

[Figure ID: Fig2]

Mortality as a function of baseline galectin-3 and NT-proBNP categories. The median value of NT-proBNP (253?pmol/L), was used to define two levels of NT-proBNP concentration. Of the 232 subjects, 231 had both a galectin-3 and NT-proBNP measurement. The number of patients in the each category is as follows: high galectin-3 and high NT-proBNP (n?=?66); low galectin-3 and low NT-proBNP (n?=?69); low galectin-3 and high NT-proBNP (n?=?49); high galectin-3 and low NT-proBNP (n?=?47)

[TableWrap ID: Tab1] Table?1 

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population by quartile of galectin-3 levels

Baseline characteristic All subjects
Galectin-3 quartile P value
1 (<13.63?ng/mL)
2 (13.63?17.63?ng/mL)
3 (17.64?21.62?ng/mL)
4 (>21.62?ng/mL)
Age, mean (SD) (years) 70.9 (10.0) 64.6 (11.7) 71.6 (8.9) 72.8 (8.9) 74.6 (7.0) <0.001
Male (%) 72.4 72.4 76.3 68.4 72.4 N/S
Ischemic etiology (%) 62.5 50.0 70.2 61.0 69.0 0.047
NYHA functional class (%)
?III 96 97 100 93 93 N/S
?IV 4 2 0 6 7 N/S
LVEF, mean (SD) 30.9 (9.4) 31.1 (10.0) 29.7 (8.2) 31.9 (8.7) 31.0 (10.6) N/S
BMI, mean (SD) (kg/m2) 26.3 (4.7) 27.9 (5.3) 25.9 (4.1) 25.8 (4.7) 25.9 (4.3) 0.046
Diabetes mellitus (%) 30 28 22 35 33 N/S
COPD (%) 29 25 23 32 35 N/S
Smoker (%) 13 17 12 14 9 N/S
GFR, mean (SD) (mL/min) 55.0 (22.8) 72.7 (24.5) 56.0 (18.6) 49.2 (19.4) 42.3 (16.6) <0.001
NT-proBNP level, mean (SD) (pmol/L) 456.0 (616.7) 291.1 (376.6) 353.8 (386.7) 526.5 (561.1) 651.2 (920.4) 0.005
Galectin-3 level, mean (SD) (ng/mL) 18.6 (7.8) 11.3 (1.6) 15.5 (1.3) 19.5 (1.2) 28.2 (9.0) ?

Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. P values are from one-way ANOVA comparison of means across quartiles of galectin-3

BMI Body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association, SD standard deviation, N/S not significant

[TableWrap ID: Tab2] Table?2 

Univariate and adjusted multivariable hazard ratios for galectin-3 association with mortality

HR (95% CI) for galectin-3 P value
Univariate (galectin-3 only) per standard deviation (7.8?ng/mL) 1.24 (1.08?1.43) 0.003
?+NT-proBNP 1.28 (1.07?1.52) 0.006
?+NT-proBNP?+?age?+?gender 1.25 (1.05?1.49) 0.014
?+NT-proBNP?+?age?+?gender?+?GFR 1.24 (1.03?1.50) 0.026

The stated P value is associated with the regression coefficient of galectin-3 in each model

Article Categories:
  • Original Paper

Keywords: Keywords Galectin-3, Chronic heart failure, Biomarkers, Prognosis.

Previous Document:  Long-term outcomes of triangle tilt surgery for obstetric brachial plexus injury.
Next Document:  Percutaneous successful closure of dual atrial septal defect with two Amplatzer septal occluder devi...