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Prognostic factors for peritonitis outcome.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22652748     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Despite advances in treatment and prevention, peritonitis remains a major problem in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with often technique failure as a consequence. The last decades the focus of PD peritonitis has changed from lowering peritonitis incidence to improvement of peritonitis outcome. Prognostic factors for peritonitis outcome can influence decision making during the treatment of peritonitis, for example to take out the PD catheter early in the time course of peritonitis and prevent further damage to the peritoneal membrane. In this paper, we give a review of the literature about prognostic factors for peritonitis outcome. In most studies, age, gender, diabetes, time on PD, a precursor of calcitonin:procalcitonin, IL-6 and albumin did not show a significant effect on peritonitis outcome. The following factors have been associated with poor outcome of peritonitis: Gram-negative organisms, Mycobacterium species, fungal peritonitis, polymicrobial peritonitis, concurrent exit site or tunnel infection, Caucasian race, low residual GFR, persistently elevated peritoneal dialysate white cell count, CRP, and low levels of slCAM-1 and hyaluronan at the end of peritonitis treatment. In fungal peritonitis, abdominal pain, bowel obstruction, the catheter remaining in situ and Candidaparapsilosis are factors associated with higher mortality rate and a greater risk of technique failure. Recent antibiotic therapy and peritonitis are associated with poor treatment response in culture-negative peritonitis. Recurrent peritonitis episodes have a poor therapeutic response and high mortality and have a worse prognosis than relapsing ones. Older age, long PD duration and continuous elevated serum CRP levels are predictors of adverse outcomes in PD patients after peritonitis-related catheter removal. Peritonitis remains a serious complication of PD with marked morbidity. It is a common cause of technique failure. The rate of PD-related peritonitis has decreased over the last decades due to advances in treatment and prevention. Nowadays, the focus moved from lowering peritonitis incidence towards improving peritonitis outcome. It is useful to have prognostic factors for peritonitis outcome, because they can influence decision-making during the treatment of peritonitis, for example to take out the PD catheter early in the time course of peritonitis and prevent further damage to the peritoneal membrane. In the last decades, many publications appeared about prognostic factors for peritonitis outcome. This article summarizes those prognostic factors, based on an extensive review of the literature.
Authors:
Sadie van Esch; Raymond T Krediet; Dirk G Struijk
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2012-05-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Contributions to nephrology     Volume:  178     ISSN:  1662-2782     ISO Abbreviation:  Contrib Nephrol     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-06-01     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7513582     Medline TA:  Contrib Nephrol     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  264-70     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Affiliation:
Division of Nephrology, Academic Medical Centre, University Hospital and Dianet, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
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