Document Detail

Principles of linear and angular vestibuloocular reflex organization in the frog.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11784757     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
We compared the spatial organization patterns of linear and angular vestibuloocular reflexes in frogs by recording the multiunit spike activity from cranial nerve branches innervating the lateral rectus, the inferior rectus, or the inferior obliquus eye muscles. Responses were evoked by linear horizontal and/or vertical accelerations on a sled or by angular accelerations about an earth-vertical axis on a turntable. Before each sinusoidal oscillation test in darkness, the static head position was systematically altered to determine those directions of horizontal linear acceleration and those planes of angular head oscillation that were associated with minimal response amplitudes. Inhibitory response components during angular accelerations were clearly present, whereas inhibitory response components during linear accelerations were absent. Likewise was no contribution from the vertical otolith organs (i.e., lagena and saccule) observed during vertical linear acceleration. Horizontal linear acceleration evoked responses that originated from eye muscle-specific sectors on the contralateral utricular macula. The sectors of the inferior obliquus and lateral rectus muscles on the utricle had an opening angle of 45 and 60 degrees, respectively and overlapped to a large extent in the laterorostral part of the utricle. Both sectors were coplanar with the horizontal semicircular canals. The sector of the inferior rectus muscle was narrow (opening 5 degrees), laterocaudally oriented, and slightly pitched up by 6 degrees. Angular acceleration evoked maximal responses in the inferior obliquus muscle nerve that originated from the ipsilateral horizontal and the contralateral anterior vertical canals in a ratio of 50:50. Lateral rectus excitation originated from the contralateral horizontal and anterior vertical semicircular canals in a ratio of 80:20. The excitatory responses of the inferior rectus muscle nerve originated exclusively from the contralateral posterior vertical canal. Measured data and known semicircular canal plane vectors were used to calculate the spatial orientation of maximum sensitivity vectors for the investigated eye muscle nerves in semicircular canal coordinates. Comparison of the directions of maximal sensitivity vectors of responses evoked by linear or angular accelerations in a given eye muscle nerve showed that the two vector directions were oriented about orthogonally with respect to each other. With this arrangement the linear and the angular vestibuloocular reflex can support each other dynamically whenever they are co-activated without a change in the spatial response characteristics. The mutual adaptation of angular and linear vestibuloocular reflexes as well as the differences in their organization described here for frogs may represent a basic feature common for vertebrates in general.
M Rohregger; N Dieringer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of neurophysiology     Volume:  87     ISSN:  0022-3077     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Neurophysiol.     Publication Date:  2002 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-01-10     Completed Date:  2002-02-07     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375404     Medline TA:  J Neurophysiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  385-98     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Physiologisches Institut der Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, 80336 Munich, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Action Potentials / physiology
Cranial Nerves / physiology*
Oculomotor Muscles / innervation,  physiology
Physical Stimulation / instrumentation,  methods
Rana temporaria / physiology*
Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular / physiology*
Saccule and Utricle / physiology
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted

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