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Prevalence and risk factors for prehypertension and hypertension in five Indian cities.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21465750     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: There are few studies detailing the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in India.
METHODS: Men and women, over 25 years of age were included. After completion of a dietitian-administered questionnaire followed evaluation by a physician, physical examination and blood pressure measurement. Cross-sectional survey screened 6940 subjects, (3507 men (M), 3433 women (W): 1993-96) from cities located in five corners of India (Kolkata, n = 900; Nagpur, n = 894; Mumbai, n = 1542; Thiruanantpuram, n = 1602; Moradabad, n = 2002). Prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg) and hypertension (BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg) were diagnosed according to the European Society of Cardiology criteria.
RESULTS: Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, respectively, was significantly greater in South India (Trivandrum:W 31.5; 31.9%; M 35.1; 35.5%) and West India (Mumbai: W 30.0; 29.1%; M 34.7; 35.6%) compared to North India (Moradabad: W 24.6; 24.5%; M 26.7; 27.0%) and East India (Kolkata: W 20.9; 22.4%; M 23.5; 24.0%). Subjects with prehypertension and hypertension were older, had a higher BMI, central obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. They had a higher salt and alcohol intake, with greater oral contraceptive usage (W). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed strong positive associations of hypertension with age, central obesity, BMI, sedentary lifestyle, salt and alcohol intake and oral contraceptive usage (W). Fruit, vegetable and legume intake showed inverse associations, tobacco intake showed none. One in four with hypertension was aware of their diagnosis and of those receiving treatment, one in three had well-controlled hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: There is little awareness that prehypertension and hypertension are public health issues in India. Ageing population, central obesity, sedentary lifestyle, excessive salt and alcohol, lower fruit, vegetable and legumes intake increase risk for blood pressure elevation.
Authors:
Ram B Singh; Jan Fedacko; Daniel Pella; Zelmira Macejova; Saraswati Ghosh; K de Amit; Raheena Begom; Zubeda A Tumbis; Memuna Haque; Shaillendra K Vajpeyee; Fabien de Meester; Chibisov Sergey; Radzhesh Agarwalo; Veerappan V Muthusamy; ; Alok K Gupta
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta cardiologica     Volume:  66     ISSN:  0001-5385     ISO Abbreviation:  Acta Cardiol     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-03-30     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370570     Medline TA:  Acta Cardiol     Country:  Belgium    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  29-37     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Hamberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India.
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