Document Detail

Pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the absence of interleukin 6 in mice.
Jump to Full Text
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22825686     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Congestive heart failure is associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the levels of these cytokines correlate with heart failure severity and prognosis. Chronic interleukin 6 (IL-6) stimulation leads to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction, and deletion of IL-6 reduces LV hypertrophy after angiotensin II infusion. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-6 deletion has favorable effects on pressure-overloaded hearts. We performed transverse aortic constriction on IL-6-deleted (IL6KO) mice and C57BL/6J mice (CON) to induce pressure overload. Pressure overload was associated with similar LV hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction in CON and IL6KO mice. Re-activation of the fetal gene program was also similar in pressure-overloaded CON and IL6KO mice. There were no differences between CON and IL6KO mice in LV fibrosis or expression of extracellular matrix proteins after pressure overload. In addition, no group differences in apoptosis or autophagy were seen. These data indicate that IL-6 deletion does not block LV remodeling and dysfunction induced by pressure overload. Attenuated content of IL-11 appears to be a compensatory mechanism for IL-6 deletion in pressure-overloaded hearts. We infer from these data that limiting availability of IL-6 alone is not sufficient to attenuate LV remodeling and dysfunction in failing hearts.
Authors:
N Chin Lai; Mei Hua Gao; Eric Tang; Ruoying Tang; Tracy Guo; Nancy D Dalton; Aihua Deng; Tong Tang
Related Documents :
1927906 - Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.
1744326 - The haemodynamic effects of intermittent haemofiltration in critically ill patients.
22209226 - A hyperbaric oxygen chamber for animal experimental purposes.
21597516 - Blood pressure devices - research supports their use in general practice.
11032996 - Specific subnuclei of the nucleus tractus solitarius play a role in determining the dur...
8783786 - Insulin-like growth factor 1 and pressure load in hypertensive patients.
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-07-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology     Volume:  92     ISSN:  1530-0307     ISO Abbreviation:  Lab. Invest.     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-05     Completed Date:  2013-01-07     Revised Date:  2013-07-12    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376617     Medline TA:  Lab Invest     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1518-26     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Apoptosis
Autophagy
Female
Fibrosis
Heart Ventricles / pathology
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / metabolism*,  pathology
Interleukin-6 / genetics,  metabolism*
Male
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Knockout
Pressure
STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
Ventricular Remodeling*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
P01 HL066941/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; R01 HL081741/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; R01 HL088426/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Interleukin-6; 0/STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0/Stat3 protein, mouse
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-journal-id): 0376617
Journal ID (pubmed-jr-id): 5462
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Lab Invest
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Lab. Invest.
ISSN: 0023-6837
ISSN: 1530-0307
Article Information
Download PDF

License:
nihms-submitted publication date: Day: 6 Month: 5 Year: 2012
Electronic publication date: Day: 23 Month: 7 Year: 2012
Print publication date: Month: 11 Year: 2012
pmc-release publication date: Day: 01 Month: 5 Year: 2013
Volume: 92 Issue: 11
First Page: 1518 Last Page: 1526
PubMed Id: 22825686
ID: 3482286
DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2012.97
ID: NIHMS373073

Pressure Overload-induced Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction in the Absence of Interleukin 6 in Mice
N. Chin Lai
Mei Hua Gao
Eric Tang
Ruoying Tang
Tracy Guo
Nancy D. Dalton
Aihua Deng
Tong Tang
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California
Correspondence: Correspondence to: Tong Tang, PhD VA San Diego Healthcare System (111A) 3350 La Jolla Village Drive San Diego, California 92161 Phone: 858-552-8585 ext. 5957 ttang@vapop.ucsd.edu

INTRODUCTION

Congestive heart failure is an inexorable disease associated with high morbidity and mortality,1 despite advanced pharmaceutical and device therapies. Chronic pressure overload, as seen in persistent hypertension, is a major risk factor for heart failure.2 Although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, pro-inflammatory cytokines may be of mechanistic importance for left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dilation.3

Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory interleukin 6 (IL-6) family cytokines [IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), oncostatin M, and cardiotrophin 1] are elevated in patients with heart failure regardless of etiology.4-10 Clinical and preclinical studies also show that increased levels of these pro-inflammatory IL-6 family cytokines correlate with high risk of developing LV hypertrophy, dilation, dysfunction, and fibrosis.4-6, 11-14 In addition, IL-6 perfusion directly inhibits contractility in isolated papillary muscle.15 Impaired contractility likely results from decreased SERCA2a expression after IL-6 stimulation.16In vivo studies show that chronic IL-6 infusion is associated with LV hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction.17, 18 These observations indicate that increased IL-6 levels impair LV function. Finally, deletion of IL-6 reduces LV hypertrophy after angiotensin II infusion.19 Our hypothesis is that reduced IL-6 levels will decrease LV hypertrophy and improve function of the pressure-overloaded hearts. We induced pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction in a murine line with IL-6 deletion to test this hypothesis.


MATERIALS AND METHODS
Animals

This study was approved by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the VA San Diego Healthcare System, in accordance with NIH and AAALAC guidelines. Male and female mice with germline IL-6 deletion (IL6KO; in congenic C57BL/6J background) were purchased from the Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Two-month-old IL6KO mice were used for the study. Age and sex-matched wild type C57BL/6J mice were used as control (CON). Deletion of IL-6 gene was confirmed by PCR using mouse tail genomic DNA as template (Supplemental Material, Figure S1A). Absence of IL-6 mRNA expression and protein expression were further confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively (Supplemental Material, Figure S1).

Pressure Overload

Pressure overload was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) as previously reported.20 Briefly, anesthetized mice were intubated and ventilated (pressure-controlled) with anesthesia maintained with 1% isoflurane in oxygen. The second intercostal space at the left upper sternal border was blunt dissected to expose the aortic arch. A 7-0 silk tie was applied against a 27-gauge needle between the innominate and left carotid artery. The needle was then removed, which leads to ~ 90% lumen narrowing. Surgery was performed without knowledge of group identity.

Echocardiography

Mouse anesthesia was induced with 5% isoflurane (at a flow rate of 1 L/min oxygen) and maintained with 1% isoflurane in oxygen. Echocardiographic images were obtained using a 16L MHz linear probe and Sonos 5500® Echocardiograph system (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA). LV chamber dimensions and LV fractional shortening were acquired and analyzed without knowledge of group identity.

In Vivo Hemodynamics

A 1.4F conductance-micromanometer catheter (Millar Instruments) was inserted into the right carotid artery to access the LV cavity on anesthetized mice (80 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital, i.p.). LV pressure development (LV +dP/dt), relaxation (−dP/dt), and end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) were determined as previously described.20

Necropsy

Body and LV weight (including the septum), and tibial length were measured at necropsy. A short axis midwall LV ring was fixed in formalin; the remaining portion of LV was quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C.

Histology

Formalin-fixed LV samples were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Dewaxed LV sections (5 μm) were rehydrated and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. To measure collagen area, rehydrated LV sections were stained with picrosirius red. Fractional collagen area was calculated as percentage of picrosirius red-stained collagen area using NIH ImageJ software.

Quantitative RT-PCR

Total RNA was extracted, purified, and treated with RNase-free DNase to eliminate potential genomic DNA contamination. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was conducted as previously described.20

Western Blotting

LV homogenates were used for Western blotting as previously described,20 using the following antibodies: Bcl2 (Cat #sc-7382, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), α-smooth muscle actin (Cat #A5228, Sigma, St. Louis, MO), periostin (Cat #AF2955, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), cathepsin D (Cat #AF1029, R&D Systems), LC3 (Cat #2775, Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA), phospho-STAT3 (Cat #9145, Cell Signaling Technology), and STAT3 (Cat #9139, Cell Signaling Technology). Equal loading of samples and even transfer efficiency were monitored by re-probing stripped blots with the antibody to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; Cat #10R-G109A, Fitzgerald Industries International, Acton, MA). Quantification of protein expression was performed using Gel-Pro® Analyzer (Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD).

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

Serum IL-6 and interleukin 11 (IL-11) levels in CON and IL6KO mice were measured using mouse IL-6 ELISA Ready-SET-Go kit (Cat #88-7064-22, eBioscience, Inc., San Diego, CA) and mouse IL-11 ELISA kit (Cat #ELM-IL11-001, RayBiotech, Inc., Norcross GA).

Terminal dUTP Nick End-labeling (TUNEL) Assay

Apoptotic cells were identified by TUNEL assay using CardioTACS In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit (R&D Systems) as described previously.21

Statistical Analysis

Results are shown as mean±SE. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test (for comparison of CON vs IL6KO mice, 2 weeks after TAC). The null hypothesis was rejected when P<0.05.


RESULTS
LV Function after Pressure Overload

Echocardiography showed reduced LV fractional shortening in CON mice 2 weeks after pressure overload (Table 1, Supplemental Material, Figure S2). These mice also had increased LV end-diastolic diameter and wall thickness, which was associated with increased mRNA expression of IL-6 in LV samples (no TAC: 100±10%, n=8; 2 weeks after TAC: 695±160%, n=8; P<0.002). IL6KO mice showed a similar degree reduction of LV fractional shortening 2 weeks after pressure overload (Table 1). There were no group differences in LV chamber dimensions between CON and IL6KO mice either before or 2 weeks after pressure overload. In addition, echocardiography showed similar changes in LV chamber dimensions and LV fractional shortening in CON and IL6KO mice after 4 weeks pressure overload (Table 2). In vivo hemodynamics study was performed to assess LV function 4 weeks after pressure overload in detail. There were no group differences in LV +dP/dt (CON: 4,159±557 mmHg/s, n=10; IL6KO: 3,521±396 mmHg/s, n=8; P=0.4) and LV −dP/dt (CON: -4,901±891 mmHg/s, n=10; IL6KO: -3,935±787 mmHg/s, n=8; P=0.4) 4 weeks after pressure overload. ESPVR, a measure relatively less dependent on load conditions, was not altered either (CON: 3.4±0.7 mmHg/μl, n=9; IL6KO: 2.3±0.5 mmHg/μl, n=9; P=0.3). Taken together, these data indicate that IL-6 deletion does not attenuate LV dilation and dysfunction associated with pressure overload.

LV Size

Pressure overload was associated with increased LV weight, LV weight/body weight ratio, LV weight/tibial length ratio in CON mice (Table 3; Figure 1A, B). The increase in lung weight after TAC indicates severe pulmonary congestion. IL6KO mice showed similar increases as CON mice in LV weight, lung weight, LV weight/body weight ratio, and LV weight/tibial length ratio after pressure overload (Table 3). By quantitative RT-PCR, we found comparable mRNA expression of the fetal gene program in LV samples from pressure-overloaded CON and IL6KO mice (Figure 1C, 1D, 1E). There were no differences in cardiac FHL1 mRNA (Figure 1F) or protein content [CON: 762±97 densitometric units (du), n=9; IL6KO: 658±120 du, n=6; P=0.51]. These data indicate that IL-6 deletion does not influence LV hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

LV Fibrosis

As anticipated, pressure overload increased LV fibrosis in CON mice, as shown by increased collagen deposition detected by picrosirius staining (Figure 2A). A similar degree of collagen deposition was found in LV samples from pressure-overloaded IL6KO mice (Figure 2A). Quantification of fractional collagen area showed no difference between CON and IL6KO mice after pressure overload (Figure 2B). There was no group difference in mRNA expression of extracellular matrix proteins collagen Iα1 (Figure 2C) and collagen IIIα1 (Figure 2D). We also found no difference in cardiac protein content of α-smooth muscle actin (Figure 2E, 2F) and periostin (Figure 2E, 2G). These results indicate that IL-6 deletion does not inhibit LV fibrosis induced by pressure overload.

Apoptosis and Autophagy

Pressure overload increased cardiac myocyte apoptosis (TUNEL staining) (Figure 3A), caspase 3/7 activity (Figure 3B), and Bcl2 protein expression (Figure 3C, D) in CON mice. IL6KO mice showed similar increases after pressure overload (Figure 3, Supplemental Material, Figure S3). Furthermore, there were no differences in cardiac protein levels of cathepsin D (Figure 3C, E) and LC3-II (Figure 3C, F) between CON and IL6KO mice 2 weeks after TAC. These data suggest that IL-6 deletion does not affect LV apoptosis or autophagy in hearts under pressure overload.

STAT3 Activation

There were no group differences in mRNA expression of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) (Figure 4A) and signal transducing component gp130 (Figure 4B) in LV samples from CON and IL6KO mice either before or 2 weeks after pressure overload. Pressure overload activated STAT3 signaling pathway in CON mice, as shown by increased STAT3 phosphorylation 2 weeks after TAC (Figure 4C, D). A similar degree of increase in STAT3 phosphorylation was found in LV samples from pressure-overloaded IL6KO mice (Figure 4C, D). No change was found in total STAT3 content (Figure 4C, E).

Expression of IL-6 Family Members

Pressure overload was associated with altered cardiac mRNA expression of other IL-6 family members: increased mRNA expression of IL-11 (Figure 4F), LIF (Figure 4G), and CNTF (Supplemental Material, Figure S4A); and decreased mRNA expression of cardiotrophin 1 (Supplemental Material, Figure S4B). Interestingly, IL-6 deletion only attenuated cardiac IL-11 mRNA expression in pressure-overloaded hearts, and had no effects on mRNA expression of LIF (Figure 4G), CNTF (Supplemental Material, Figure S4A), and cardiotrophin 1 (Supplemental Material, Figure S4B). Decreased serum IL-11 levels were also found in IL6KO mice 2 weeks after TAC (Figure 4H).


DISCUSSION

Epidemiology and animal studies show that heart failure is associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6.4, 22 In this study, we showed that cardiac IL-6 expression was increased in pressure-overloaded hearts. However, IL-6 deletion did not influence pressure overload-induced LV dilation or dysfunction. There were no group differences in LV hypertrophy, fibrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy between CON and IL6KO mice after pressure overload. These data indicate that IL-6 deletion is dispensable for LV remodeling and dysfunction in response to pressure overload.

A previous study showed that deletion of IL-6 attenuated LV hypertrophy induced by infusion of angiotensin II.19 However, we found that IL-6 deletion did not affect LV hypertrophy and expression of the fetal gene program in pressure-overloaded hearts (Figure 2). The reason for this mismatch is not known, but may be due to differences in models (angiotensin II infusion vs pressure overload). Alternatively, the observed blockade of LV hypertrophy by IL-6 deletion in angiotensin II infusion may reflect the effect of genetic backgrounds, but not the effect of IL-6 deletion. Indeed, control mice in C57BL/6N genetic background (Charles River) were used to compared to IL6KO mice (in C57BL/6J genetic background, The Jackson Laboratories) in the previous study.19 We have previously shown profound differences in survival and cardiac function change in C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice (The Jackson Laboratories) in response to pressure overload.20

The IL-6 family cytokines include pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, LIF, CNTF, oncostatin M, and cardiotropin-1, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-11. Previous studies demonstrate that pro-inflammatory IL-6 family members induces LV hypertrophy, dilation, dysfunction, and fibrosis,4-6, 11-14 but anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-11 protects cardiac myocytes from ischemia/reperfusion injury23 and decreases cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis after myocardial infarction.24 Glycoprotein gp130 is a common signal transducing component for receptors for all IL-6 family members, and transduces signals from these cytokines to JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway. The inability of IL-6 deletion to attenuate LV remodeling and dysfunction after pressure overload may be due to the compensatory effects of other IL-6 family members. Indeed, deletion of IL-6 had no effect on cardiac STAT3 phosphorylation either before or after pressure overload (Figure 4C, 4D). Moreover, IL-6 deletion inhibited pressure overload-increased cardiac IL-11 mRNA content and circulating IL-11 level (Figure 4F, 4H), but did no affect expression of other IL-6 family members. Therefore, attenuated content of IL-11 appears to be a compensatory mechanism for IL-6 deletion in pressure overloaded hearts.

In addition to pressure overload, myocardial infarction is another major risk factor for congestive heart failure. Although IL-6 reduces apoptosis25 and is important for ischemic preconditioning,26 chronic elevation of IL-6 is associated with LV dilation and dysfunction.17, 27, 28 LV samples from the infarct border zone show elevated levels of IL-6,29 which correlates with LV size after myocardial infarction.30 Interestingly, IL-6 deletion did not prevent or worsen LV dysfunction and adverse remodeling in myocardial infarcted hearts.31 These results, together with our findings in the current study, demonstrate that IL-6 expression is not required for LV hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction in pathologically stressed hearts, although chronic elevation of IL-6 is sufficient to induce LV remodeling and dysfunction.

In conclusion, IL-6 deletion does not block LV remodeling and dysfunction in pressure-overloaded hearts. These data suggest that limiting availability of IL-6 alone (such as with immunodepletion with IL-6 antibody) is not sufficient to attenuate LV remodeling and dysfunction in failing hearts.


Supplementary Material 1

Notes

FN1DISCLOSURE None.

Sources of Support: This work was supported by Grants from the American Heart Association Western State Affiliates and the National Institutes of Health.


List of Abbreviations
CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor
CON mice C57BL/6J mice
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
ESPVR end-systolic pressure-volume relationship
IL-6 interleukin 6
IL-11 interleukin 11
IL6KO mice IL-6-deleted mice
LIF leukemia inhibitory factor
LV left ventricular
TAC transverse aortic constriction
TUNEL terminal dUTP nick end-labeling

REFERENCES
1. Lloyd-Jones D,Adams RJ,Brown TM,Carnethon M,Dai S,De Simone G,Ferguson TB,Ford E,Furie K,Gillespie C,Go A,Greenlund K,Haase N,Hailpern S,Ho PM,Howard V,Kissela B,Kittner S,Lackland D,Lisabeth L,Marelli A,McDermott MM,Meigs J,Mozaffarian D,Mussolino M,Nichol G,Roger VL,Rosamond W,Sacco R,Sorlie P,Roger VL,Thom T,Wasserthiel-Smoller S,Wong ND,Wylie-Rosett J. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2010 update: a report from the American Heart AssociationCirculationYear: 2010121e46e21520019324
2. Mann D. Libby P,Bonow R,Mann D,Zipes DPathophysiology of heart failureBraunwald’s Heart Disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicineYear: 2008541560SaundersPhiladelphia
3. Bozkurt B,Mann DL,Deswal A. Biomarkers of inflammation in heart failureHeart Fail RevYear: 20101533134119363700
4. Birner CM,Ulucan C,Fredersdorf S,Rihm M,Lowel H,Stritzke J,Schunkert H,Hengstenberg C,Holmer S,Riegger G,Luchner A. Head-to-head comparison of BNP and IL-6 as markers of clinical and experimental heart failure: Superiority of BNPCytokineYear: 200740899717920926
5. Tsutamoto T,Asai S,Tanaka T,Sakai H,Nishiyama K,Fujii M,Yamamoto T,Ohnishi M,Wada A,Saito Y,Horie M. Plasma level of cardiotrophin-1 as a prognostic predictor in patients with chronic heart failureEur J Heart FailYear: 200791032103717766177
6. Hirota H,Izumi M,Hamaguchi T,Sugiyama S,Murakami E,Kunisada K,Fujio Y,Oshima Y,Nakaoka Y,Yamauchi-Takihara K. Circulating interleukin-6 family cytokines and their receptors in patients with congestive heart failureHeart VesselsYear: 20041923724115372299
7. Zolk O,Ng LL,O’Brien RJ,Weyand M,Eschenhagen T. Augmented expression of cardiotrophin-1 in failing human hearts is accompanied by diminished glycoprotein 130 receptor protein abundanceCirculationYear: 20021061442144612234945
8. Kalogeropoulos A,Georgiopoulou V,Psaty BM,Rodondi N,Smith AL,Harrison DG,Liu Y,Hoffmann U,Bauer DC,Newman AB,Kritchevsky SB,Harris TB,Butler J. Inflammatory markers and incident heart failure risk in older adults: the Health ABC (Health, Aging, and Body Composition) studyJ Am Coll CardiolYear: 2010552129213720447537
9. Matsubara J,Sugiyama S,Nozaki T,Sugamura K,Konishi M,Ohba K,Matsuzawa Y,Akiyama E,Yamamoto E,Sakamoto K,Nagayoshi Y,Kaikita K,Sumida H,Kim-Mitsuyama S,Ogawa H. Pentraxin 3 is a new inflammatory marker correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with normal ejection fractionJ Am Coll CardiolYear: 20115786186921310324
10. Kubota T,Miyagishima M,Alvarez RJ,Kormos R,Rosenblum WD,Demetris AJ,Semigran MJ,Dec GW,Holubkov R,McTiernan CF,Mann DL,Feldman AM,McNamara DM. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the failing human heart: comparison of recent-onset and end-stage congestive heart failureJ Heart Lung TransplantYear: 20001981982411008069
11. Cesari M,Penninx BW,Newman AB,Kritchevsky SB,Nicklas BJ,Sutton-Tyrrell K,Rubin SM,Ding J,Simonsick EM,Harris TB,Pahor M. Inflammatory markers and onset of cardiovascular events: results from the Health ABC studyCirculationYear: 20031082317232214568895
12. Fisman EZ,Benderly M,Esper RJ,Behar S,Boyko V,Adler Y,Tanne D,Matas Z,Tenenbaum A. Interleukin-6 and the risk of future cardiovascular events in patients with angina pectoris and/or healed myocardial infarctionAm J CardiolYear: 200698141816784912
13. Ohtsuka T,Hamada M,Inoue K,Ohshima K,Sujzuki J,Matsunaka T,Ogimoto A,Hara Y,Shigematsu Y,Higaki J. Relation of circulating interleukin-6 to left ventricular remodeling in patients with reperfused anterior myocardial infarctionClin CardiolYear: 20042741742015298045
14. Yan AT,Yan RT,Cushman M,Redheuil A,Tracy RP,Arnett DK,Rosen BD,McClelland RL,Bluemke DA,Lima JA. Relationship of interleukin-6 with regional and global left-ventricular function in asymptomatic individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease: insights from the Multi-Ethnic Study of AtherosclerosisEur Heart JYear: 20103187588220064818
15. Finkel MS,Oddis CV,Jacob TD,Watkins SC,Hattler BG,Simmons RL. Negative inotropic effects of cytokines on the heart mediated by nitric oxideScienceYear: 19922573873891631560
16. Villegas S,Villarreal FJ,Dillmann WH. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor and Interleukin-6 downregulate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2) in cardiac myocytesBasic Res CardiolYear: 200095475410752545
17. Janssen SP,Gayan-Ramirez G,Van den Bergh A,Herijgers P,Maes K,Verbeken E,Decramer M. Interleukin-6 causes myocardial failure and skeletal muscle atrophy in ratsCirculationYear: 2005111996100515710765
18. Melendez GC,McLarty JL,Levick SP,Du Y,Janicki JS,Brower GL. Interleukin 6 mediates myocardial fibrosis, concentric hypertrophy, and diastolic dysfunction in ratsHypertensionYear: 20105622523120606113
19. Coles B,Fielding CA,Rose-John S,Scheller J,Jones SA,O’Donnell VB. Classic interleukin-6 receptor signaling and interleukin-6 trans-signaling differentially control angiotensin II-dependent hypertension, cardiac signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation, and vascular hypertrophy in vivoAm J PatholYear: 200717131532517591976
20. Tang T,Lai NC,Hammond HK,Roth DM,Yang Y,Guo T,Gao MH. Adenylyl cyclase 6 deletion reduces LV hypertrophy, dilation, dysfunciton and fibrosis in pressure-overloaded female miceJ Am Coll CardiolYear: 2010551476148620359598
21. Takahashi T,Tang T,Lai NC,Roth DM,Rebolledo B,Saito M,Lew WY,Clopton P,Hammond HK. Increased cardiac adenylyl cyclase expression is associated with increased survival after myocardial infarctionCirculationYear: 200611438839616864723
22. Tamariz L,Hare JM. Inflammatory cytokines in heart failure: roles in aetiology and utility as biomarkersEur Heart JYear: 20103176877020172914
23. Kimura R,Maeda M,Arita A,Oshima Y,Obana M,Ito T,Yamamoto Y,Mohri T,Kishimoto T,Kawase I,Fujio Y,Azuma J. Identification of cardiac myocytes as the target of interleukin 11, a cardioprotective cytokineCytokineYear: 20073810711517629706
24. Obana M,Maeda M,Takeda K,Hayama A,Mohri T,Yamashita T,Nakaoka Y,Komuro I,Takeda K,Matsumiya G,Azuma J,Fujio Y. Therapeutic activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by interleukin-11 ameliorates cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarctionCirculationYear: 201012168469120100971
25. Matsushita K,Iwanaga S,Oda T,Kimura K,Shimada M,Sano M,Umezawa A,Hata J,Ogawa S. Interleukin-6/soluble interleukin-6 receptor complex reduces infarct size via inhibiting myocardial apoptosisLab InvestYear: 2005851210122316056242
26. Dawn B,Xuan YT,Guo Y,Rezazadeh A,Stein AB,Hunt G,Wu WJ,Tan W,Bolli R. IL-6 plays an obligatory role in late preconditioning via JAK-STAT signaling and upregulation of iNOS and COX-2Cardiovasc ResYear: 200464617115364614
27. Kurdi M,Booz GW. Can the protective actions of JAK-STAT in the heart be exploited therapeutically? Parsing the regulation of interleukin-6-type cytokine signalingJ Cardiovasc PharmacolYear: 20075012614117703129
28. Lecour S,James RW. When are pro-inflammatory cytokines SAFE in heart failure?Eur Heart JYear: 20113268068521303780
29. Gwechenberger M,Mendoza LH,Youker KA,Frangogiannis NG,Smith CW,Michael LH,Entman ML. Cardiac myocytes produce interleukin-6 in culture and in viable border zone of reperfused infarctionsCirculationYear: 1999995465519927402
30. Ono K,Matsumori A,Shioi T,Furukawa Y,Sasayama S. Cytokine gene expression after myocardial infarction in rat hearts: possible implication in left ventricular remodelingCirculationYear: 1998981491569679721
31. Fuchs M,Hilfiker A,Kaminski K,Hilfiker-Kleiner D,Guener Z,Klein G,Podewski E,Schieffer B,Rose-John S,Drexler H. Role of interleukin-6 for LV remodeling and survival after experimental myocardial infarctionFASEB JYear: 2003172118212012958147

Article Categories:
  • Article

Keywords: IL-6, inflammatory cytokine, LV function, hypertrophy, fibrosis, pressure overload, heart failure.

Previous Document:  Microwave-assisted synthesis of BiOBr/graphene nanocomposites and their enhanced photocatalytic acti...
Next Document:  The suppression of TRIM21 and the accumulation of IFN-? play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of os...