Document Detail

Predicting performance in competitive apnea diving. Part III: deep diving.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22183699     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
The first of these reviews described the physiological factors defining the limits of static apnea, while the second examined performance in apneic distance swimming. This paper reviews the factors determining performance in depth disciplines, where hydrostatic pressure is added to the stressors associated with apnea duration and physical work. Apneic duration is essential for performance in all disciplines, and is prolonged by any means that increases gas storage or tolerance to asphyxia or reduces metabolic rate. For underwater distance swimming, the main challenge is to restrict metabolism despite the work of swimming, and to redirect blood flow to allow the most vital functions. Here, work economy, local tissue energy and oxygen stores, anaerobic capacity of the muscles, and possibly technical improvements will be essential for further development. In the depth disciplines, direct pressure effects causing barotrauma, the narcotic effects of gases, decompression sickness (DCS) and possibly air embolism during ascent need to be taken into account, as does the risk of hypoxia when the dive cannot be rapidly interrupted before the surface is reached again. While in most deep divers apneic duration is not the main limitation thus far, greater depths may call for exceptionally long apneas and slower ascents to avoid DCS. Narcotic effects may also affect the ultimate depth limit, which the divers currently performing 'constant weight with fins' dives predict to be around 156 metres' sea water. To reach these depths, serious physiological challenges have to be met, technical developments needed and safety procedures developed concomitantly.
Erika Schagatay
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Diving and hyperbaric medicine : the journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society     Volume:  41     ISSN:  1833-3516     ISO Abbreviation:  Diving Hyperb Med     Publication Date:  2011 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101282742     Medline TA:  Diving Hyperb Med     Country:  Australia    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  216-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Professor in the Environmental Physiology Group, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, and at the Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden. Environmental Physiology Group ,Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Akademigatan 1, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Östersund, Sweden, Phone: +46-(0)63-165512, Fax: +46-(0)63-165700, E-mail:
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