Document Detail

Predicting effective caloric value of nonnutritive factors: I. Pellet quality and II. Prediction of consequential formulation dead zones.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15285508     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Two experiments were conducted with male broilers to 1) establish a methodology for predicting effective caloric value (ECV), defined as dietary caloric density (CD) necessary for broilers to achieve specific BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) combinations under standardized conditions and 2) quantify the ECV attributable to pellet quality (PQ), defined as the pellet to pellet fines ratio in the feeder. In experiment 1, chicks were reared to 56 d on diets varying in CD. Dietary caloric densities examined ranged from 2,650 to 3,250 kcal of MEn/kg. Pen BW, feed intake, and FCR were measured at 21, 42, and 56 d. On 42 and 56 d, carcass traits were measured. Increasing CD significantly enhanced BW, energy consumption, and FCR. Feed intake remained similar across the upper 3 CD treatments to 42 d. By d 56, feed consumption tended to decline as CD increased. Increasing CD beyond 3,066 kcal of MEn/kg diet did not increase lean tissue accretion, while fat deposition rose disproportionately. Experiment 1 results enabled development of equations whereby CD, hence ECV, might be predicted using BW and FCR. In experiment 2, 38-d-old broilers were used to evaluate PQ effects on growth, feed intake, FCR, and behavior in a 7-d FCR assay. The BW gain and FCR were significantly enhanced by pelleting and were positively correlated with PQ. Feed intake was not affected by PQ. The experiment 1 model was validated for experiment 2, as it closely estimated the CD for diets of similar PQ used in experiment 1. Results suggest pelleting contributes 187 kcal/kg of diet at 100% PQ and that the ECV declines curvilinearly as PQ falls. Birds were observed eating less and resting more as PQ increased, suggesting that ECV of pelleting is mediated by energy expenditure for activity. These studies provide a method for estimating ECV of nonnutritive factors that impact BW, FCR, or both. Further, the application reveals potential for creation of formulation "dead zones" whereby dietary changes to enhance CD may be offset due to reduced ECV.
L J McKinney; R G Teeter
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Poultry science     Volume:  83     ISSN:  0032-5791     ISO Abbreviation:  Poult. Sci.     Publication Date:  2004 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-08-02     Completed Date:  2004-10-14     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401150     Medline TA:  Poult Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1165-74     Citation Subset:  IM    
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
Behavior, Animal / physiology
Chickens / growth & development,  physiology*
Energy Intake*
Energy Metabolism
Food Handling / methods*
Weight Gain

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