Document Detail

Preconditioning and postconditioning: underlying mechanisms and clinical application.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19081095     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death world-wide. Its major pathophysiological manifestation is acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Innovative treatment strategies for protecting the myocardium against the detrimental effects of this form of injury are required in order to improve clinical outcomes in patients with CHD. In this regard, harnessing the endogenous protection elicited by the heart's ability to 'condition' itself, has recently emerged as a powerful new strategy for limiting myocardial injury, preserving left ventricular systolic function and potentially improving morbidity and mortality in patients with CHD. 'Conditioning' the heart to tolerate the effects of acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury can be initiated through the application of several different mechanical and pharmacological strategies. Inducing brief non-lethal episodes of ischaemia and reperfusion to the heart either prior to, during, or even after an episode of sustained lethal myocardial ischaemia has the capacity to dramatically reduce myocardial injury--a phenomenon termed ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), preconditioning or postconditioning, respectively. Intriguingly, similar levels of cardioprotection can be achieved by applying the brief episodes of non-lethal ischaemia and reperfusion to an organ or tissue remote from the heart, thereby obviating the need to 'condition' the heart directly. This phenomenon has been termed remote ischaemic 'conditioning', and it can offer widespread systemic protection to other organs which are susceptible to acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury such as the brain, liver, intestine or kidney. Furthermore, the identification of the signalling pathways which underlie the effects of 'conditioning', has provided novel targets for pharmacological agents allowing one to recapitulate the benefits of these cardioprotective phenomena--so-termed pharmacological preconditioning and postconditioning. Initial clinical studies, reporting beneficial effects of 'conditioning' the heart to tolerate acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury, have been encouraging. Larger multi-centred randomised studies are now required to determine whether these 'conditioning' strategies are able to impact on clinical outcomes. In this article, we provide an overview of 'conditioning' in all its various forms, describe the underlying mechanisms and review the recent clinical application of this emerging cardioprotective strategy.
Derek J Hausenloy; Derek M Yellon
Related Documents :
9714095 - Nitric oxide synthase is the mediator of late preconditioning against myocardial infarc...
20544535 - Protection of mouse heart against hypoxic damage by amp deaminase inhibition.
9219615 - Long-term ischaemic preconditioning of the heart induced by repeated beta-adrenergic st...
17803575 - Evaluation by cardiac troponin i: the effect of ischemic preconditioning as an adjunct ...
24798685 - Assessment of silent neuronal injury following coronary angiography and intervention in...
12668835 - Brachytherapy for refractory coronary artery restenosis.
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2008-11-05
Journal Detail:
Title:  Atherosclerosis     Volume:  204     ISSN:  1879-1484     ISO Abbreviation:  Atherosclerosis     Publication Date:  2009 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-05-25     Completed Date:  2009-08-10     Revised Date:  2014-02-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0242543     Medline TA:  Atherosclerosis     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  334-41     Citation Subset:  IM    
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use*
Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial* / methods
Myocardial Infarction / physiopathology,  therapy*
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / mortality,  physiopathology,  prevention & control*
Signal Transduction / drug effects
Treatment Outcome
Ventricular Function, Left / drug effects
Grant Support
RG/08/015/26411//British Heart Foundation
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cardiovascular Agents

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-2 gene methylation is associated with low expression in carotid athe...
Next Document:  Intramedullary pressure and matrix strain induced by oscillatory skeletal muscle stimulation and its...