Document Detail


Potential new approaches for children's inhalation risk assessment.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18097946     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) practice of risk assessment is moving toward more thoroughly considering children's unique susceptibilities and exposure potential. Childhood is assessed as a sequence of life stages that reflects the fact that as humans develop, windows of susceptibility may appear that lead to enhanced sensitivity to exposure of environmental agents, while changes in behavior and physiology may increase exposure and dose. The U.S. EPA developed guidance in the past few years that addresses some aspects of increased susceptibility and exposure and dose. However, when it comes to considering inhalation exposure, dose, and risk, current U.S. EPA practice does not explicitly address children. The purpose here is to begin studying the adequacy of practice for children's health and to explore possible next steps in developing new methods to more accurately assess life-stage-specific differences. The existing guidelines and policies used to address potentially unique susceptibilities of children for inhaled environmental chemicals were considered, as well as what may be learned from examples of approaches that have been applied by state agencies (such as the California Environmental Protection Agency) or in the literature, to incorporate potentially unique susceptibilities and exposures to children. Finally, there is a discussion of possible approaches for considering inhalation exposure and susceptibility in U.S. EPA risk assessments.
Authors:
Michael Firestone; Babasaheb Sonawane; Stanley Barone; Andrew G Salmon; Joseph P Brown; Dale Hattis; Tracey Woodruff
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A     Volume:  71     ISSN:  1528-7394     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A     Publication Date:  2008  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-12-21     Completed Date:  2008-01-10     Revised Date:  2008-02-28    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100960995     Medline TA:  J Toxicol Environ Health A     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  208-17     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Office of Children's Health Protection and Environmental Education, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA. firestone.michael@epa.gov
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Air Pollutants / adverse effects*
Animals
Carcinogens*
Child, Preschool
Disease Models, Animal*
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure*
Male
Neoplasms / etiology*
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
Risk Assessment / methods*
United States
United States Environmental Protection Agency*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants; 0/Carcinogens

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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