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Potential precipitating factors of esophageal variceal bleeding: a case-control study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20823836     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVES: Valsalva maneuver-associated activities such as straining during defecation, vomiting, and cough are believed to cause abrupt increase in variceal pressure. Whether these actions can precipitate rupture of esophageal varices (EV) is unknown. The association of EV bleeding with these activities and other potential risk factors such as ingestion of alcohol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was investigated.
METHODS: Between January 2003 and May 2009, 240 patients with liver cirrhosis and acute EV bleeding (group A) and 240 matched patients with Child-Pugh's class and moderate size EV without bleeding (group B) were included. Each patient was questioned regarding constipation, vomiting, cough, and other potential risk factors in the week prior to index bleeding (group A) or endoscopy (group B) using a standard questionnaire.
RESULTS: Group A had more patients with constipation (n=44 vs. n=16, P<0.001) and higher constipation scores (0.79 ± 1.67 vs. 0.25 ± 0.92, P<0.001) than group B. Group A also had more patients with vomiting (n=60 vs. n=33, P=0.002) and higher vomiting scores (3.0 ± 0.86 vs. 1.85 ± 0.87, P<0.001). No difference in cough existed between the two groups (n=77 group A vs. n=73 group B); however, group A had higher cough scores (5.08 ± 2.70 vs. 3.19 ± 2.23, P<0.001). Group A had more patients with excessive alcohol consumption in the week preceding inclusion in the study (n=58 vs. n=5, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, constipation score and vomiting score and alcohol consumption were independent determinants of first EV bleeding.
CONCLUSIONS: Constipation, vomiting, severe coughing, and excessive consumption of alcohol may precipitate rupture of EV. A prospective cohort study is required to clarify the causal relationship between potential precipitating factors and EV bleeding.
Authors:
Wei-Chih Liao; Ming-Chih Hou; Chen-Jung Chang; Fa-Yauh Lee; Han-Chieh Lin; Shou-Dong Lee
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-09-07
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of gastroenterology     Volume:  106     ISSN:  1572-0241     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Gastroenterol.     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-07     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0421030     Medline TA:  Am J Gastroenterol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  96-103     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
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