|Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs.|
|Jump to Full Text|
|PMID: 23391314 Owner: NLM Status: PubMed-not-MEDLINE|
|BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and incidences of brain cancer have led to the notion that Toxoplasma infections increase the risk of brain cancer. However, molecular events involved in Toxoplasma induced brain cancers are not well understood.
PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Toxoplasma gains control of host cell functions including proliferation and apoptosis by channelizing parasite proteins into the cell cytoplasm and some of the proteins are targeted to the host nucleus. Recent studies have shown that Toxoplasma is capable of manipulating host micro RNAs (miRNAs), which play a central role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesize that Toxoplasma promotes brain carcinogenesis by altering the host miRNAome using parasitic proteins and/or miRNAs.
TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: The miRNA expression profiles of brain cancer specimens obtained from patients infected with Toxoplasma could be analyzed and compared with that of normal tissues as well as brain cancer tissues from Toxoplasma uninfected individuals to identify dysregulated miRNAs in Toxoplasma-driven brain cancer cells. Identified miRNAs will be further confirmed by studying cancer related miRNA profiles of the different types of brain cells before and after Toxoplasma infection using cell lines and experimental animals. EXPECTED OUTCOME: The miRNAs specifically associated with brain cancers that are caused by Toxoplasma infection will be identified.
IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Toxoplasma infection may promote initiation and progression of cancer by modifying the miRNAome in brain cells. If this hypothesis is true, the outcome of this research would lead to the development of novel biomarkers and therapeutic tools against Toxoplasma driven brain cancers.
|Sivasakthivel Thirugnanam; Namita Rout; Munirathinam Gnanasekar|
Related Documents :
|15687594 - Her2 testing: laboratory, technical and clinical considerations.
10117734 - Facilities for the management of patients with lipid disorders in the united kingdom: r...
15627014 - Challenges in breast cancer clinical trial design in the postgenomic era.
18563794 - Optimum treatment allocation rules under a variance heterogeneity model.
12438484 - Measurement of amygdala t2 relaxation time in temporal lobe epilepsy.
23716994 - Expression of hucdc7 in colorectal cancer.
|Type: Journal Article Date: 2013-02-08|
|Title: Infectious agents and cancer Volume: 8 ISSN: 1750-9378 ISO Abbreviation: Infect. Agents Cancer Publication Date: 2013|
|Created Date: 2013-02-28 Completed Date: 2013-03-01 Revised Date: 2013-04-18|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 101276559 Medline TA: Infect Agent Cancer Country: England|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 8 Citation Subset: -|
|Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, 1601 Parkview Ave, Rockford, IL, 61107, USA. email@example.com.|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Infect Agent Cancer
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Infect. Agents Cancer
Publisher: BioMed Central
Copyright ©2013 Thirugnanam et a;
Received Day: 31 Month: 8 Year: 2012
Accepted Day: 4 Month: 2 Year: 2013
collection publication date: Year: 2013
Electronic publication date: Day: 8 Month: 2 Year: 2013
Volume: 8First Page: 8 Last Page: 8
PubMed Id: 23391314
Publisher Id: 1750-9378-8-8
|Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs|
|Sivasakthivel Thirugnanam1||Email: firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Namita Rout2||Email: Namita_Rout@hms.harvard.edu|
|Munirathinam Gnanasekar1||Email: email@example.com|
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, 1601 Parkview Ave, Rockford, IL, 61107, USA
2New England Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, MA, 01772, USA
Chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections in humans worldwide and nearly one-third of the population has been estimated to be carrying the parasite [1,2]. Upon entry, T. gondii transforms into fast replicating tachyzoites and infects various organs of the body including the central nervous system (CNS). To evade host immune response, some of the tachyzoites differentiate in to bradyzoites, which are slow growing and form tissue cysts in the brain [3,4]. During chronic infection, T.gondii tissue-cysts persist for lifetime of the host without provoking any host immune attack .
Host cell invasion is an active process which is essential for survival and replication of parasites. While invading a host cell, T. gondii discharges proteins from its secretory organelles which include micronemes, rhoptries, and dense granules. Detection of parasitic proteins with kinase and phosphatase domains in the host nucleus suggests that the parasite modulates the host cell signaling and gene expression . This notion is further supported by a recent finding that Toxoplasma infection orchestrates the expression of host miRNAs which are deliberated as the key regulators of signaling pathways .
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19–24 nucleotides) non-protein coding RNAs endogenously regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding with target mRNAs that trigger their degradation and/or translational inhibition. A single miRNA can regulate multiple mRNAs; therefore, miRNAs have imperative effects on cell signaling networks [8,9]. Several studies have identified differential expression of miRNAs in brain tumors including glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma, and medulloblastoma when compared to normal tissues [10,11]. The miRNAs play a critical role in brain carcinogenesis and metastasis by acting as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors .
Toxoplasma is an important non-viral pathogen shown to be associated with the occurrence of brain tumors. Previous investigations have revealed that T. gondii could cause gliomas in experimental animals . Studies carried out by Ryan et. al.,  showed that antibody positivity to Toxoplasma is associated with meningioma. An epidemiological study analyzing data from 37 countries for the incidences of adult brain cancers and Toxoplasma infected people associated a nearly two-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of prevalence in Toxoplasma infection . These studies, though correlational, suggest that Toxoplasma should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen in humans. A recent work conducted in France showed that mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma, particularly in the people who are 55 years of age or older . Despite these strong evidences suggesting that Toxoplasma is associated with brain cancer, it is unclear how the infection causes this debilitating cancer in humans. In this article, we present a hypothesis that Toxoplasma infection may have the ability to modulate the host miRNAs and could potentially promote the development of brain cancer.
Toxoplasma has an inherent ability to manipulate host cell signaling pathways and processes by interfering with the global gene expression profiles of the invaded cells [6,17]. Microarray analysis showed that more than 1,000 host cell genes involved in the various processes including apoptosis, inflammation, metabolism, cell growth and differentiation, are up-regulated or down-regulated after the Toxoplasma invasion [18-20]. During intracellular infections, the host cell responds by initiating apoptotic response which reduces survival and proliferation of the parasites and makes the parasites susceptible to immune attack. However, Toxoplasma has established several strategies to neutralize the extrinsic and intrinsic cellular suicide programs of the infected cells [6,21]. Invasion of Toxoplasma turns host cells resistant to multiple inducers of apoptosis, including Fas-dependent and Fas-independent CTL-mediated cytotoxicity, IL-2 deprivation, gamma irradiation, UV irradiation, and calcium ionophorebeauvericin . Toxoplasma exerts different anti-apoptotic mechanisms for the successful establishment in different cell types [6,21,22]. Toxoplasma significantly reduces Fas/CD95-triggered apoptosis by impairing activation of the initiator caspase 8 in type I cells . While in type II cells, Toxoplasma targets activation of the pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak to inhibit the apoptogenic function of mitochondria . Toxoplasma infection has been shown to promote the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins: Bcl2, Bfl1, Bcl-Xl, Bcl-w, Mcl-1, Bad and Bax in host cells [25-27]. Toxoplasma also modulates several cell signaling pathways including AKT and Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) pathways [28,29].
In a search to identify the parasite effector molecules, proteins of rhoptry and dense granule secretory organelles were found to be secreted by the parasite during the invasion, that are capable of modulating host signaling pathways . Interestingly, recent studies showed that miRNAs, which are important regulators of gene expression, are manipulated by Toxoplasma to interfere with the host cell functioning [7,30]. In addition, Toxoplasma infection has been shown to specifically increase levels of mature miR-17-92 derived miRNAs in primary human foreskin fibroblasts . Toxoplasma dependent up-regulation of the miR-17-92 promoter is at least partly responsible for this increase.
The miR-17-92 cluster is associated with brain cancers [31,32]. Primary human astrocyticglioma tissue specimens are found to be over-expressing the miR-17-92 cluster, compared to non-neoplastic brain control tissues . Inhibition of the miR-17-92 results in reduced cell viability and cell proliferation and increased apoptotic rates . Furthermore, expression analysis of 90 primary human medulloblastomas revealed that components of the miR-17-92 polycistron are greatly up-regulated miRNAs in the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, which is medulloblastoma, and miR-17-92 expression correlates with high levels of MYC family proto-oncogenes. Besides, expression analysis of the miR-17-92 cluster showed that three miRNAs (miR-92, miR-19a, and miR-20) are over-expressed only in human medulloblastomas with a constitutively activated Sonic Hedgehog/patched (SHH/PTCH) signaling pathway, suggesting the role of the miR-17-92 cluster in the formation of aberrant SHH/PTCH pathway driven medulloblastomas . Molecular targets of miR-17-92 are found to be CDKN1A, BCL2L11, PTEN and E2F1; and depletion of miR-17-92 results in the derepression of CDKN1A and E2F1 at the mRNA level and of E2F1 and PTEN at the protein level . Since the AKT pathway has been shown to be activated by Toxoplasma infection , an interesting possibility is that miR-17-92 mediated decrease in levels of PTEN during Toxoplasma infection in brain cells could be activating AKT pathways which may result in the development of brain cancer.
In addition to miR-17-92, various other miRNAs are critically involved in development and progression of different types of brain cancers [11,34]. Glioblastomamultiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary intracranial malignancy of brain tumors, is shown to be associated with up-regulation of miR-221 and down-regulation of miR-128, miR-181a, miR-181b, and miR-181c . Another miRNA elevated in GBM is miR-21, which regulates multiple genes associated with cancer cell proliferation, such as, apoptosis, and invasiveness . Also, miR-21 is up-regulated in medulloblastoma cells and its down-regulation increased the expression of negative modulators of cancer cell migration, E-Cadherin and TIMP2 proteins and their positive regulator PDCD4 which results in decreased motility of medulloblastoma [37,38]. Pituitary adenomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system and show differential expression of 30 miRNAs including tumor suppressors belonging to the let-7 family, compared to normal pituitary gland .
Furthermore, the Toxoplasma genome codes for ostentatious RNA silencing machinery and endogenous small silencing RNAs, including miRNAs . Toxoplasma may be using its own miRNAs to modify host cell functions, analogous to some mammalian viruses encoding their own miRNAs . In view of above findings, we hypothesize that Toxoplasma associated miRNA dysregulation may be playing a central role in the development of brain carcinogenesis, considering the significance of miRNAs in brain tumor development and progression [Figure 1.
To our knowledge, there is only one study that utilized primary human foreskin fibroblasts to elucidate the effect of Toxoplasma infection on the host cell miRNAs . However, the host miRNAs regulated by Toxplasma may vary based on cell type. Thus the possibility that Toxoplamsa infection can alter expression of several other miRNAs along with miR-17-92 in different types of host cells cannot be ruled out. Therefore, it is essential to study miRNA profiles of various types of Toxoplasma positive brain cancer cells; especially GBM or medulloblastoma, the most prevalent brain cancers.
To test this hypothesis, miRNA profiles of normal brain and cancer tissues collected from brain cancer patients with and without Toxoplasma infection will be first studied. The details of the study have been summarized in Figure 2. Frozen, fresh or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain tissues will be obtained from brain banks and hospitals performing brain surgeries and examined by pathologists, assessing the presence of Toxoplasma infection and the proportion of normal and tumor cells. Commercially available reagents containing concentrated chaotropic salts, such as guanidiniumthiocyanate (e.g., Trizol) followed by silica column extraction will be used to extract high quality miRNA from brain tissue samples. Three major approaches are now commonly used for miRNA profiling: quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), microarrays and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Additional new methods are emerging which will be applied for miRNA profiling in the future . High throughput microarray technology will be used to identify miRNA signatures associated with Toxoplasma infected brain cancer cells. The identified global miRNAs profile will be further validated by qRT-PCR in different brain cell lines and brain cells of experimental animals before and after Toxoplasma infection. In addition, brains of the animals chronically infected with Toxoplasma will be monitored in vivo for malignant transformation and tumor growth using neuroimaging techniques [43,44]. The miRNAs that are differentially expressed in Toxoplasma driven brain cancer cells could be used as markers to classify these cancers. As briefly outlined, in Figure 2, functional analysis of identified miRNAs by over expression and down regulation in cell lines and experimental animals will reveal the effect of Toxoplasma-modified miRNA expression on survival and death pathways of brain cancer cells. Thus, these studies could be very useful in the development of miRNA-based therapeutics.
Decades of Toxoplasma research has made us aware of the parasite’s ability to manipulate host cell signaling pathways. Though some parasite proteins were identified as effector molecules for this function, the underlying molecular mechanisms of Toxoplasma- mediated brain carcinogenesis are not clearly understood. Our hypothesis predicts that Toxoplasma-modified miRNAs may play a critical role in initiation and progression of brain carcinogenesis, though the outcome of the infection possibly depends on the mode of infection, parasitic strain, type of host cell and miRNA expression patterns of host cell and parasite proteins. If our hypothesis is true, miRNAs critically involved in the Toxoplasma driven cancers could be identified and they could be utilized as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Thus, further research on the specific miRNA pathways affected by Toxoplasma in various brain cells would open new avenues in the diagnosis and treatment of brain cancers caused by Toxoplasma infection.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
ST, NR and MG developed the hypotheses and contributed to writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We would like to thank the Dean’s office and Department of Biomedical Sciences of UICOMR for their support. We would also like to thank Ms. Janet Stull Snow for editing this manuscript.
|Montoya JG,Liesenfeld O,ToxoplasmosisLancetYear: 20043631965197610.1016/S0140-6736(04)16412-X15194258|
|Tenter AM,Heckeroth AR,Weiss LM,Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humansInt J ParasitolYear: 2000301217125810.1016/S0020-7519(00)00124-711113252|
|Weiss LM,Kim K,The development and biology of bradyzoites of toxoplasma gondiiFront BiosciYear: 20005D391D40510.2741/Weiss10762601|
|Bohne W,Holpert M,Gross U,Stage differentiation of the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondiiImmunobiologyYear: 199920124825410.1016/S0171-2985(99)80065-510631574|
|Dubey JP,Lindsay DS,Speer CA,Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites and biology and development of tissue cystsClin Microbiol RevYear: 1998112672999564564|
|Laliberté J,Carruthers VB,Host cell manipulation by the human pathogen toxoplasma gondiiCellular Mol Life SciYear: 2008651900191510.1007/s00018-008-7556-x18327664|
|Zeiner GM,Norman KL,Thomson JM,Hammond SM,Boothroyd JC,Toxoplasma gondii infection specifically increases the levels of key host microRNAsPLoS OneYear: 20105e874210.1371/journal.pone.000874220090903|
|Selbach M,Schwanhausser B,Thierfelder N,Fang Z,Khanin R,Rajewsky N,Widespread changes in protein synthesis induced by microRNAsNatureYear: 2008455586310.1038/nature0722818668040|
|Shalgi R,Lieber D,Oren M,Pilpel Y,Global and local architecture of the mammalian microRNA-transcription factor regulatory networkPLoS Comput BiolYear: 20073e13110.1371/journal.pcbi.003013117630826|
|Pang JC,Kwok WK,Chen Z,Ng HK,Oncogenic role of microRNAs in brain tumorsActa NeuropatholYear: 200911759961110.1007/s00401-009-0525-019343354|
|Turner JD,Williamson R,Almefty KK,Nakaji P,Porter R,Tse V,Kalani MY,The many roles of microRNAs in brain tumor biologyNeurosurg FocusYear: 201028E320043718|
|Wang D,Qiu C,Zhang H,Wang J,Cui Q,Yin Y,Human microRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors show significantly different biological patterns: from functions to targetsPLoS OneYear: 201059e1306710.1371/journal.pone.001306720927335|
|Wrensch M,Bondy ML,Wiencke J,Yost M,Environmental risk factors for primary malignant brain tumors: a reviewJ NeurooncolYear: 199317476410.1007/BF010542748120572|
|Ryan P,Hurley SF,Johnson AM,Salzberg M,Lee MW,North JB,McNeil JJ,McMichael AJ,Tumours of the brain and presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondiiInt J EpidemiolYear: 19932241241910.1093/ije/22.3.4128359956|
|Thomas F,Lafferty KD,Brodeur J,Elguero E,Gauthier-Clerc M,Missé D,Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii is commonBiol LettYear: 2012810110310.1098/rsbl.2011.058821795265|
|Vittecoq M,Elguero E,Lafferty KD,Roche B,Brodeur J,Gauthier-Clerc M,Missé D,Thomas F,Brain cancer mortality rates increase with toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in franceInfection, Genetics Evol: J Mol Epidemiol Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious DiseasesYear: 20121249649810.1016/j.meegid.2012.01.013|
|Lüder CG,Gross U,Lopes MF,Intracellular protozoan parasites and apoptosis: diverse strategies to modulate parasite-host interactionsTrends ParasitolYear: 20011748048610.1016/S1471-4922(01)02016-511587962|
|Blader IJ,Manger ID,Boothroyd JC,Microarray analysis reveals previously unknown changes in toxoplasma gondii-infected human cellsJ Biol ChemYear: 2001276242232423110.1074/jbc.M10095120011294868|
|Gail M,Gross U,Bohne W,Transcriptional profile of toxoplasma gondii-infected human fibroblasts as revealed by gene-array hybridizationMol Genetics Genomics: MGGYear: 200126590591210.1007/s004380100487|
|Okomo-Adhiambo M,Beattie C,Rink A,CDNA microarray analysis of host-pathogen interactions in a porcine in vitro model for toxoplasma gondii infectionInfect ImmunYear: 2006744254426510.1128/IAI.00386-0516790800|
|Sinai AP,Payne TM,Carmen JC,Hardi L,Watson SJ,Molestina RE,Mechanisms underlying the manipulation of host apoptotic pathways by toxoplasma gondiiInt J ParasitolYear: 20043438139110.1016/j.ijpara.2003.11.00915003498|
|Nash PB,Purner MB,Leon RP,Clarke P,Duke RC,Curiel TJ,Toxoplasma gondii-infected cells are resistant to multiple inducers of apoptosisJ Immunol (Baltimore, Md: 1950)Year: 199816018241830|
|Vutova P,Wirth M,Hippe D,Gross U,Schulze-Osthoff K,Schmitz I,Lüder CGK,Toxoplasma gondii inhibits Fas/CD95-triggered cell death by inducing aberrant processing and degradation of caspase 8Cell MicrobiolYear: 200791556157010.1111/j.1462-5822.2007.00893.x17298390|
|Hippe D,Weber A,Zhou L,Chang DC,Häcker G,Lüder CGK,Toxoplasma gondii infection confers resistance against BimS-induced apoptosis by preventing the activation and mitochondrial targeting of pro-apoptotic BaxJ Cell SciYear: 20091223511352110.1242/jcs.05096319737817|
|Carmen JC,Hardi L,Sinai AP,Toxoplasma gondii inhibits ultraviolet light-induced apoptosis through multiple interactions with the mitochondrion-dependent programmed cell death pathwayCell MicrobiolYear: 2006830131510.1111/j.1462-5822.2005.00622.x16441440|
|Goebel S,Gross U,Luder CG,Inhibition of host cell apoptosis by toxoplasma gondii is accompanied by reduced activation of the caspase cascade and alterations of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expressionJ Cell SciYear: 20011143495350511682609|
|Molestina RE,Payne TM,Coppens I,Sinai AP,Activation of NF-kappaB by toxoplasma gondii correlates with increased expression of antiapoptotic genes and localization of phosphorylated IkappaB to the parasitophorous vacuole membraneJ Cell SciYear: 20031164359437110.1242/jcs.0068312966164|
|Kim J-Y,Ahn M-H,Jun H-S,Jung J-W,Ryu J-S,Min D-Y,Toxoplasma gondii inhibits apoptosis in infected cells by caspase inactivation and NF-kappaB activationYonsei Med JYear: 20064786286910.3349/ymj.2006.47.6.86217191317|
|Kim L,Denkers EY,Toxoplasma gondii triggers Gi-dependent PI 3-kinase signaling required for inhibition of host cell apoptosisJ Cell SciYear: 20061192119212610.1242/jcs.0293416638808|
|Zeiner GM,Boothroyd JC,Use of two novel approaches to discriminate between closely related host microRNAs that are manipulated by toxoplasma gondii during infectionRNAYear: 2010161268127410.1261/rna.206931020423977|
|Ernst A,Campos B,Meier J,Devens F,Liesenberg F,Wolter M,Reifenberger G,Herold-Mende C,Lichter P,Radlwimmer B,De-repression of CTGF via the miR-17-92 cluster upon differentiation of human glioblastoma spheroid culturesOncogeneYear: 2010293411342210.1038/onc.2010.8320305691|
|Uziel T,Karginov FV,Xie S,Parker JS,Wang Y-D,Gajjar A,He L,Ellison D,Gilbertson RJ,Hannon G,Roussel MF,The miR-17 92 cluster collaborates with the Sonic Hedgehog pathway in medulloblastomaProc Natl Acad Sci U S AYear: 20091062812281710.1073/pnas.080957910619196975|
|Northcott PA,Fernandez-L A,Hagan JP,Ellison DW,Grajkowska W,Gillespie Y,Grundy R,Van Meter T,Rutka JT,Croce CM,et al. The miR-17/92 polycistron is up-regulated in sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastomas and induced by N-myc in sonic hedgehog-treated cerebellar neural precursorsCancer ResYear: 2009693249325510.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-471019351822|
|Nicoloso MS,Calin GA,MicroRNA involvement in brain tumors: from bench to bedsideBrain PatholYear: 20081812212910.1111/j.1750-3639.2007.00119.x18226107|
|Ciafre SA,Galardi S,Mangiola A,Ferracin M,Liu CG,Sabatino G,Negrini M,Maira G,Croce CM,Farace MG,Extensive modulation of a set of microRNAs in primary glioblastomaBiochem Biophys Res CommunYear: 20053341351135810.1016/j.bbrc.2005.07.03016039986|
|Chan JA,Krichevsky AM,Kosik KS,MicroRNA-21 is an antiapoptotic factor in human glioblastoma cellsCancer ResYear: 2005656029603310.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-013716024602|
|Grunder E,D’Ambrosio R,Fiaschetti G,Abela L,Arcaro A,Zuzak T,Ohgaki H,Lv SQ,Shalaby T,Grotzer M,MicroRNA-21 suppression impedes medulloblastoma cell migrationEur J CancerYear: 2011472479249010.1016/j.ejca.2011.06.04121775132|
|Chen Y,Liu W,Chao T,Zhang Y,Yan X,Gong Y,Qiang B,Yuan J,Sun M,Peng X,MicroRNA-21 down-regulates the expression of tumor suppressor PDCD4 in human glioblastoma cell T98GCancer LettYear: 200827219720510.1016/j.canlet.2008.06.03419013014|
|Bottoni A,Zatelli MC,Ferracin M,Tagliati F,Piccin D,Vignali C,Calin GA,Negrini M,Croce CM,Degli Uberti EC,Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs by microarray: a possible role for microRNA genes in pituitary adenomasJ Cell PhysiolYear: 200721037037710.1002/jcp.2083217111382|
|Braun L,Cannella D,Ortet P,Barakat M,Sautel CF,Kieffer S,Garin J,Bastien O,Voinnet O,Hakimi M-A,A complex small RNA repertoire is generated by a plant/fungal-like machinery and effected by a metazoan-like argonaute in the single-cell human parasite toxoplasma gondiiPLoS pathogensYear: 20106e100092010.1371/journal.ppat.100092020523899|
|Grundhoff A,Sullivan CS,Virus-encoded microRNAsVirologyYear: 201141132534310.1016/j.virol.2011.01.00221277611|
|Pritchard CC,Cheng HH,Tewari M,MicroRNA profiling: approaches and considerationsNat Rev GenetYear: 20121335836922510765|
|de Kemp RA,Epstein FH,Catana C,Tsui BM,Ritman EL,Small-animal molecular imaging methodsJ Nucl MedYear: 201051Suppl 118S32S20457793|
|Price JC,Molecular brain imaging in the multimodality eraJ Cereb Blood Flow MetabYear: 2012321377139210.1038/jcbfm.2012.2922434068|
Keywords: T. gondii, Brain cancer, miRNA.
Previous Document: Bonding Quandary in the [Cu(3)S(2)]((3+)) Core. Insights from the Analysis of Domain Averaged Fermi ...
Next Document: Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Strains Isolated from ...