Document Detail

Possible mechanical roles of glycosaminoglycans in thoracic aortic dissection and associations with dysregulated transforming growth factor-β.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23018968     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Four distinguishing histopathological characteristics of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAADs) are the fragmentation or degradation of elastic fibers, loss of smooth muscle, pooling of glycosaminoglycans, and remodeling of fibrillar collagens. Of these, pooling of glycosaminoglycans appears to be unique to these lesions.
METHODS: This review acknowledges the importance of dysregulated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in TAADs and offers a complementary hypothesis that increased TGF-β could contribute to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the media of the proximal thoracic aorta. Regardless, observed pools of glycosaminoglycans could decrease tensile strength, cause stress concentrations, and increase intralamellar swelling pressure, all of which could initiate local delaminations that could subsequently propagate as dissections and result in a false lumen or rupture.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a pressing need to investigate potential mechanical as well as biological consequences of accumulated glycosaminoglycans in TAADs and to elucidate responsible signaling pathways, with particular attention to synthetic cells of nonmesodermal lineage. Such research could provide insight into the mechanisms of dissection and the seemingly paradoxical role of the over-expression of a cytokine that is typically associated with fibrosis but is implicated in a degenerative disease of the aorta that can result in a catastrophic mechanical failure.
J D Humphrey
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2012-09-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of vascular research     Volume:  50     ISSN:  1423-0135     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Vasc. Res.     Publication Date:  2013  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-21     Completed Date:  2013-02-14     Revised Date:  2014-01-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9206092     Medline TA:  J Vasc Res     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-10     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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MeSH Terms
Aneurysm, Dissecting / genetics,  metabolism*,  pathology,  physiopathology
Aorta, Thoracic / metabolism*,  pathology,  physiopathology
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic / genetics,  metabolism*,  pathology,  physiopathology
Aortic Rupture / genetics,  metabolism*,  pathology,  physiopathology
Biomechanical Phenomena
Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism*
Signal Transduction
Tensile Strength
Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Glycosaminoglycans; 0/Transforming Growth Factor beta
Comment In:
J Vasc Res. 2013;50(3):198-9   [PMID:  24040670 ]
J Vasc Res. 2013;50(3):197-8   [PMID:  23594734 ]

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