Document Detail

Positive and negative affect within the realm of depression, stress and fatigue: the two-factor distress model of the Global Mood Scale (GMS).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16458366     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The Global Mood Scale (GMS; [Denollet, J., 1993a. Emotional distress and fatigue in coronary heart disease: the Global Mood Scale (GMS). Psychol Med 23, 111-121., Denollet, J., 1993b. The sensitivity of outcome assessment in cardiac rehabilitation. J Consult Clin Psychol 61, 686-695.]) was originally developed as a measure of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in cardiac patients. The purpose of this study was to examine its two-factor affect model in the realm of stress, depression, and fatigue in working adults. METHODS: Affect, stress, depression, and fatigue were assessed with validated questionnaires in a sample of 228 adults (49.6% male; mean = 41.4 +/- 9 years) from the working population. RESULTS: The GMS PA and NA scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = .94 and alpha = .93, respectively), and correlated in the expected direction with their corresponding mood scales from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Factor analyses of the 40 mood terms comprising the GMS and PANAS yielded one common PA-dimension, but two NA-dimensions reflecting emotional exhaustion (GMS) and anxious apprehension (PANAS) as different components of the stress process. A relatively high mean NA score of the GMS suggested that these working adults perceived terms that refer to malaise/deactivation as being relevant to describe their negative affective status. The GSM-NA scale was related to stress, depression and fatigue while the GMS-PA scale was positively associated with quality of life. LIMITATIONS: This study is based on a cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS: The association between the PA (negative correlation) and NA (positive correlation) scales of the GMS and perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and fatigue supports the validity of its two-factor model. Assessment of both PA and NA may benefit a better understanding of emotional distress in adults from the working population.
Johan Denollet; Jolanda De Vries
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies     Date:  2006-02-03
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of affective disorders     Volume:  91     ISSN:  0165-0327     ISO Abbreviation:  J Affect Disord     Publication Date:  2006 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-03-20     Completed Date:  2006-08-31     Revised Date:  2009-09-28    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7906073     Medline TA:  J Affect Disord     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  171-80     Citation Subset:  IM    
CoRPS-Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic diseases, Department of Psychology and Health, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major / diagnosis,  epidemiology*
Fatigue / diagnosis,  epidemiology*
Follow-Up Studies
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life / psychology*
Stress, Psychological / diagnosis,  epidemiology*

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